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Catalogue: Alchemy

Blue arrow pointing to the rightKitāb al-Malāghim al-thānī   (MS A 33, item 2)
(The Second Book of Amalgams )
كتاب الملاغم الثانى
attributed to Jābir ibn ayyān
جابر ابن حيان

A number of treatises attributed to Jābir ibn ayyān are concerned with amalgams (Arabic al-malāghim) of metals and other substances, and in particular their combining with mercury. Amongst the collection known as The 112 Books, composed at the end of the 9th century, the 21st and 22nd books were said to be titled Kitāb al-Malāghim al-jawwaniyah and al-Malāghim al-barraniyah (The Book of Interior Amalgams and The Book of Exterior Amalgams), though no manuscripts known to be preserved today can be definitely aligned with these titles (see Kraus, Jabir, p. 21 nos. 27 and 28). Later Arabic alchemical writers sometimes present extracts from various Jābirian treatises on amalgams, but very few complete treatises are preserved today.

The National Library of Medicine has copies of four distinct treatises concerned with amalgams, and, of these four treatises, three are represented by two copies now at NLM (a copy in MS A 33 and a copy in MS A 91.1).

One of the three treatises on amalgams preserved in two copies at NLM is: Kitāb al-Malāghim al-thānī, also known as Kitāb al-Malāghim al-asghar. It is a treatise on amalgams in two chapters (maqalahs).

In addition to the two copies now at NLM, only one other copy is recorded: Tehran, Khaniqah-i Ni'matallah, MS 145, copied in 1834/1250 (see Sezgin, GAS IV, p. 269 no. 24; and Kraus, Jabir, p. 21 no. 28).

Kitab al-Malaghim al-thani   (MS A 33, item 2)

Physical Description

Arabic. 16 leaves (fols. 11a-26b). Dimensions 21 x 14.8 (text area 15.3 x 7.4) cm; 12 lines per page. The title is given as al-Malāghim al-thānī at the start of the treatise (fol. 11a, line 2), while four lines further on it states that it is also known as al-Malāghim al-asghar.

The copy is undated and unsigned. The appearance of the paper, ink, and script suggests a date of the 17th or 18th century.

All the items in the volume were copied by the same person. The volume was given the title Majmu‘ nafīs al-kimiya’ (A Valuable Collection on Alchemy) on fol. 1b, which is a later title page and table of contents. A modern label on the front paste-down reads: Majmu‘ah: Rasa’il li-Jābir ibn ayyān (Collection: Treatises by Jābir ibn ayyān).

The text is written in a large naskh tending to ta‘liq script using black ink with headings in a tomato-red. The text area is frame-ruled. There are catchwords.

There are marginalia in several hands throughout the volume. Some indicate corrections, others (in a very large script) repeat section headings, and some provide brief commentaries. Most of the folios have been numbered in Arabic numerals on the verso; the volume has been recently refoliated in Western numerals.

Fols. 2-188 are composed of a thin, ivory paper with vertical laid lines and single chain lines (no watermarks observed). Fols. 189-252 are composed of a slightly thicker and stiffer light-beige paper that also has vertical laid lines with single chain lines spaced further apart than in the paper of the first group; there are also evident watermarks. The paper is damp-stained and darker near the edges, with considerable water-damage at the top inner corner. It is also slightly soiled through thumbing. Fol. 1 is a watermarked paper slightly different from the rest of the volume.

The volume consists of 252 leaves. Fol. 1a is blank; the folio is a later piece of paper on which someone has written a table of contents for the volume on the verso. Fols. 10b, 27a, 48a, and 89b are completely blank. Fol. 121a is blank except for a short Persian later annotation. Fol. 36b was blank, but a Persian note has since been added to it, and fol. 58a was blank until a short note in red ink was added that repeats the title of the previous item. Carefully written Persian notes have been written at the bottom of fols. 47a and 47b.

Fols. 2a-10a (item 1) contain Kitāb al-Malāghim al-awwal by Jābir ibn ayyān (MS A 33, item 1); fols. 11a-26b (item 2) Kitāb al-Malāghim al-thānī by Jābir ibn ayyān here catalogued; fols. 27b-36a (item 3) Kitāb al-Malāghim al-thālith by Jābir ibn ayyān (MS A 33, item 3); fols. 37a-47a (item 4) Tafsīr al-Malāghim by Jābir ibn ayyān (MS A 33, item 4); fols. 48b-57b (item 5) Kitāb al-al-Tadābīr by Jābir ibn ayyān (MS A 33, item 5); fols. 58b-89a (item 6) Kitāb al-Uūl by Jābir ibn ayyān (MS A 33, item 6); fols. 90a-120b (item 7) Kitāb al-Sirr al-sārr wa-sirr al-asrār by Jābir ibn ayyān (MS A 33, item 7); fols. 121b-147a (item 8) al-Muntakhab min Kitāb al-Ittiād by Jābir ibn ayyān (MS A 33, item 8); fols. 147a-161b (item 9) Kitāb al-Sirr al-asrār by al-Rāzī (MS A 33, item 9); fols. 161b-173b (item 10) Kitāb al-Sirr al-Maknūn by Jābir ibn ayyān (MS A 33, item 10); fols. 174a-185a (item 11) Kitāb al-Wāid al-awwal wa-al-thānī wa-al-thālith by Jābir ibn ayyān (MS A 33, item 11); fols. 185a-211b (item 12) Kitāb al-Bāhir by Jābir ibn ayyān (MS A 33, item 12); fols. 212a-217b (item 13) Kitāb al-Khamā'ir al-thālith by Jābir ibn ayyān (MS A 33, item 13); fols. 217b-229a (item 14) Kitāb Tafsīr al-khamā'ir al-thālith by Jābir ibn ayyān (MS A 33, item 14); fols. 229b-230b (item 15) Kitab al-Sha‘ar [quotations from] by Jābir ibn ayyān (MS A 33, item 15); fols. 230b-244b (item 16) Kitab al-Khama'ir by Jābir ibn ayyān (MS A 33, item 16); and fols. 244b-252b (item 17) al-Khalis al-mubarak by Jābir ibn ayyān (MS A 33, item 17).


The volume is bound in an 18th or 19th -century Persian/Turkish binding of brown leather over pasteboards with an envelope flap. Both covers have a blind-stamped large scalloped mandorla panel stamp whose decoration on the inner field has a central flower in full bloom and interweaving vines with full blown and smaller flowers and leaves. There are two small pendants blind-stamped with a single flower-bud. The covers also have blind-tooled frames formed of simple fillets either side of a narrow guilloche roll. The envelope flap has a similar frame, with the small scalloped panel stamp decorated with a small flower in full bloom surrounded by a scalloped design. The spine, fore-edge flap, and edges are recently repaired in a darker brown leather. The envelope flap has a yellow-green paper lining. There are modern pastedowns and endpapers and a recent brown-cloth fore-edge flap lining.


The volume was purchased in 1941 by the Army Medical Library from A. S. Yahuda (ELS No. 1683).


Schullian/Sommer, Cat. of incun. & MSS., entry A 33, p. 308.

NLM Microfilm Reel: FILM 48-118 no. 6.

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