Ovarian overproduction of androgens is a condition in which the ovaries make too much testosterone. This leads to the development of male characteristics in a woman. Other hormones, called androgens, from other parts of the body can also cause male characteristics to develop in women.
In healthy women, the ovaries and adrenal glands produce about 40 to 50% of the body's testosterone. Tumors of the ovaries and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can both cause too much androgen production.
Cushing's disease is a problem with the pituitary gland that leads to excess amounts of corticosteroids. Corticosteroids cause masculine body changes in women. Tumors in the adrenal glands can also cause too much production of androgens and can lead to male body characteristics in women.
High levels of androgens in a female can cause:
- Changes in female body shape
- Decrease in breast size
- Increase in body hair in a male pattern, such as on the face, chin, and abdomen
- Lack of menstrual periods (amenorrhea)
- Oily skin
These changes may also occur:
- Increase in the size of the clitoris
- Deepening of the voice
- Increase in muscle mass
- Thinning hair and hair loss at the front of the scalp on both sides of the head
Exams and Tests
- 17-hydroxyprogesterone test
- ACTH test
- CT scan
- DHEA blood test
- Glucose test
- Insulin test
- Pelvic ultrasound
- Prolactin test (if periods come less often or not at all)
- Testosterone test
- Total cholesterol test
- TSH test (if there is hair loss)
Treatment depends on the problem that is causing the increased androgen production. Medications can be given to decrease hair production in women with excess body hair, or to regulate menstrual cycles. In some cases, surgery may be needed to remove an ovarian or adrenal tumor.
Treatment success depends on the cause of excess androgen production. If the condition is caused by an ovarian tumor, surgery to remove the tumor may correct the problem. Most ovarian tumors are not cancerous (benign), and will not come back after they have been removed.
In polycystic ovary syndrome, these things can reduce symptoms caused by high androgen levels:
- Careful monitoring
- Weight loss
- Dietary changes
- Regular vigorous exercise
Infertility and complications during pregnancy may occur.
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome may be at increased risk for:
- High blood pressure
- High cholesterol
- Uterine cancer
There is no known prevention. Maintaining a normal weight through a healthy diet and regular exercise can reduce your chances of any long-term complications.
Bulun SE. The physiology and pathology of the female reproductive axis. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 17.
Lobo RA. Hyperandrogenism: physiology, etiology, differential diagnosis, management. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2012:chap 40.
Update Date 6/13/2014
Updated by: Cynthia D. White, MD, Fellow American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Group Health Cooperative, Bellevue, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.