Cranial sutures are fibrous bands of tissue that connect the bones of the skull.
An infant's skull is made up of six separate cranial bones:
These bones are held together by strong, fibrous, elastic tissues called sutures.
The spaces between the bones where the sutures are called fontanelles. Sometimes, they are called soft spots. These spaces are a part of normal development. The cranial bones remain separate for about 12-18 months. They then grow together as part of normal growth. They stay connected throughout adulthood.
Two fontanelles usually appear on a newborn's skull
The posterior fontanelle usually closes by age 1 or 2 months. It may already be closed at birth.
The anterior fontanelle usually closes sometime between 9 months and 18 months.
The sutures and fontanelles are needed for the infant's brain growth and development. During childbirth, the flexibility of the sutures allows the bones to overlap so the baby's head can pass through the birth canal without pressing on and damaging his or her brain.
During infancy and childhood, the sutures are flexible. This allows the brain to grow quickly and protects the brain from minor impacts to the head (such as when the infant is learning to hold his head up, roll over, and sit up). Without flexible sutures and fontanelles, the child's brain could not grow enough. The child would develop brain damage.
Feeling the cranial sutures and fontanelles is one way that doctors and nurses follow the child's growth and development. They are able to assess the pressure inside the brain by feeling the tension of the fontanelles. The fontanelles should feel flat and firm. Bulging fontanelles may be a sign of increased pressure within the brain. In this case, doctors may need to use imaging techniques such as CT scan or MRI scan. Surgery may be needed to relieve the increased pressure.
Fontanelles; Sutures - cranial
Carlo WA. Physical Examination of the Newborn Infant. In: Kliegman RM,Behrman RE, Jenson HB,Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbookof Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 88.2.
Updated by: Neil K. Kaneshiro, MD, MHA, Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. Copyright 1997-2014, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions.