The Ultimate in Commentaries on the 'Mūjiz' (Kitāb al-Mughnī fī sharḥ al-Mūjiz) by al-Kāzarūnī appears to have been very popular, judging from the numerous copies of the treatise that are preserved today. Kitāb al-Mughni was also known by other titles: Sharḥ Mūjiz Ibn al-Nafīs (Commentary on the Epitome of Ibn al-Nafīs) and al-Mughni fi Sharḥ al-Mūjiz al-Qanun al-tibbi alladhi fannanah al-Qurashi (The Ultimate in Commentaries on the Epitome of the "Medical Canon" which was devised by al-Qurashi), and Sadīdi (Sadīd's Book).
At the beginning of the Mughni, al-Kāzarūnī lists the various medical writings that he consulted in the preparation of his commentary. The Kitāb al-Mughni is divided into four sections (fanns) corresponding to the four sections of the Mūjiz. He named his commentary "The Sufficient" or "The Ultimate" (al-Mughni) because, as he states in the introduction to the treatise, his commentary, together with the Mūjiz, would be sufficient for students of medicine and would obviate the need to consult other medical writings.
Numerous copies are preserved today. The earliest recorded copy of the treatise was transcribed in Isfahan in 776/1374 by Maḥmūd ibn Aḥmad Muḥammad al-Qadi al-Kuhan Badran [Los Angeles, UCLA Biomedical Library, Coll. 1062, MS Ar. 33]. For other copies see: Iskandar, "Wellcome", p. 135-140; Iskandar, "UCLA", p. 56-57; Dietrich, Medicinalia, no. 33 p. 89-91; Usamah Nasir Naqshabandi, Makhtutat al-tibb wa-al-saydalah wa-al-baytarah fi Maktabat al-Muthaf al-‘Iraqi (Baghdad: Wizarad al-Thaqafah wa-al-I‘lam, 1981), entries 670-680, p. 344-348; Adam Gacek, Arabic Manuscripts in the Libraries of McGill University: Union Catalog (Montreal: McGill University, 1991), p. 137; Savage-Smith, "Bodleian", MSS Marshall Or. 10, Hunt. 35, Hunt. 176, Bruce 2, Bruce 3, and Ind. Inst. Arab. 13; and Birmingham (Alabama), University of Alabama, Reynolds Library, MS Medical coll. 5094.
The treatise was published in Calcutta in 1832: Ashshurh-ool Moognee, Commentatio absoluta. A commentary on The Moojuz-ool Kanoon, known by the name of The Sudeedee, compiled by the celebrated physician Maulana Sudeed Kazroonee, ed. by Hukeem Mouluvee Abdool Mujeed, Mouluvee Gholam Mukhdoom, and Mouluvee Abdoolah (Calcutta: Printed at the Education Press, Circular Road, 1832).
Kitāb al-Mughnī fī sharḥ al-Mūjiz (MS A 42.1)
Arabic. 255 leaves (fols. 1a-255a). Dimensions 24.3 x 13.3 cm; text area 20.5 x 9.3 cm; 24 and 27 lines per page. The title is given in the beginning of the text, fol. 1a, line 20, and also at the end, on fol. 225a, line 11. The author's name is given as Diya’ al-Dīn Mas‘ūd al-Kāzarūnī on fol. 1a, line 9, and as Sadīd al-Kāzarūnī on fol. 255a, line 11. The name of the author of al-Mūjiz is given on fol. 1a, line 10, as ‘Ala’ al-Dīn ‘Alī ibn Abī al-Hazm al-Qurashi, known as Ibn al-Nafīs.
This is a nearly complete copy, with only a few lines missing from the beginning of the text. It consists of four parts: fann 1, on general principles (fols. 1a-56b); fann 2 on simple and compound remedies (fols. 57b-110a); fann 3, diseases head to foot (fols. 111a-223b); and fann 4, diseases not assignable to any particular part (fols. 223b-255a).
The copy is dated in the year 1090 [= 1679-1680] at the end of the first section (fann) on fol. 56b. At the end of the second fann, on fol. 110a, line 7, the date of the copy is given as the last ten days of Jamid (i.e., Jumadá) I in the year 1090 [= 18-28 June 1680]. The copyist is not named.
The text on fols. 1-228 is written in a small, delicate, and compact naskh script. Black ink with copious red overlinings of the text by Ibn al-Nafis being commented upon. There are also headings in red and red marginal headings. There are extensive marginalia and Persian interlinear notes. Fols. 229-255 are written by a different hand, 27 lines per page. In this section the headings and overlinings are purplish, and there are no marginalia. There are catchwords in both parts.
The beige, nearly matte-finished paper of fols. 1-228 has indistinct laid lines (vertical streaks) and no chain lines. Fols. 229-255 are of a more recent and different paper that is thicker and dyed a light-gray with a greenish tinge. The paper in this section is watermarked (with the initial 'D') The paper throughout is damaged by water and grime. Crude repairs have been attempted on the first few folios. The edges have been trimmed from their original size, so that some of the marginalia has been cut off. Fol. 198 is loose.
The volume consists of 255 leaves, with 4 unnumbered preliminary leaves. Fol. 110b is blank. Fol. 255b contains two recipes in a much later hand. The preliminary leaves are modern ruled note-paper and are blank except for a recent penciled note in Arabic identifying the treatise and author.
The volume is bound in pasteboards covered with maroon leather with blind tooling on the covers (damaged); there is a tan leather spine. The edges have been repaired. There are modern endpapers and pastedowns.
The volume was purchased by the National Library of Medicine in 1962 from Dr. Lufti M. Sa‘di of Detroit (Sa‘di MS 6).
D.A. Kronick and A.S. Ehrenkreutz, "Arabic medicine, AD 740-1400," Medical Bulletin of the University of Michigan, vol. 22 (1956), p. 221.
Arabic. 38 leaves (fols. 1b-38a). Dimensions 25.5 x 16.2 cm; text area 19.6 x 10.8 cm; 27 lines per page. The title is given at the end of the text, fol. 38a, line 9, as Sharḥ al-Mūjiz (Commentary on the Mūjiz). The author's name is given as Sadīd al-Kāzarūnī on fol. 38a, line 8, with the author of the Mūjiz given on the same folio, lines 12-13, as ‘Ala' al-Dīn al-Qurashi.
The copy contains only the fourth section (fann) of the commentary by al-Kāzarūnī on the Mūjiz. The text corresponds to fols. 223b-255a of NLM MS A 42.1.
The copy is undated. The appearance of the paper, ink, and script suggests a date of the 16th century.
The text is written in a medium-small naskh script. The text area has been frame-ruled. Black ink with headings in red. The text being commented on, from the Mujiz, is written in red. There are catchwords and red marginal headings. There are also some marginal corrections.
The thick, nearly matte-finished (possibly due to water damage), beige paper has occasional thin patches, but no laid lines or chain lines. It has been severely stained by damp and soiled with grime. The edges have been trimmed from their original size.
The volume consists of 38 leaves. Fol. 1a is blank except for two defaced owner's notes and an Arabic note stating (incorrectly) that it is a commentary on the fourth section (fann) of the third book of the Canon.
Fol. 38b contains the start of a treatise on anatomy, written in Persian. No author or title is given, and the treatise, written in a much later hand than the rest of the volume, is unidentified. Text area 22 x 13 cm, not frame-ruled -- that is, the scribe did not use the ruling that was made for the text on the other side of the folio. It is written in a medium-small very compact, informal and personal naskh; 39 lines. Black ink with red overlinings. There is a catchword at the bottom of the page. The edges have been trimmed so that some marginalia is lost.
On fol 1a there is a defaced owner's note dated 12 Rabi‘ II 1135 [= 20 January 1723] and a second defaced one in which only part of a date can be read as 22 (= 1710).
The volume was purchased in 1941 by the Army Medical Library from A.S. Yahuda, who acquired it from a dealer in Damascus (ELS No. 1650).
Schullian/Sommer, Cat. of incun. & MSS., p. 317 entry A61.
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Al-Āqsarā’ī composed an extensive and popular commentary on the Mūjiz which was given the title Ḥall al-Mūjiz because, according to the author, it resolves (yahullu) the problems and obscurities that occur in it. In the introduction the author states that in order to resolve many of these problems he consulted the fundamental books (al-kutub al-mu‘tamadah) such as al-Qanun of Ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) which was abbreviated in the Mūjiz, The Complete Book on Medicine of al-Majusi, the Hawi by al-Rāzī, and the writings of Najīb al-Dīn al-Samarqandī.
For other copies, see GAL, vol. 1 p. (598), GAL-S, vol. 1, p. 825, entry ee.; Dietrich, Medicinalia, p. 91-92, no. 34; and Iskandar "Wellcome", p. 100-103; and Savage-Smith, "Bodleian", MSS Hunt. 596, Marsh 233, Laud. Or.49, and Marsh 100.
Ḥall al-Mūjiz (MS A 67)
The colophon of a commentary on the Mūjiz of Ibn al-Nafīs written by al-Āqsarā’ī in the 14th century and copied in Jumadá I 810 [= October 1407] by a copyist named ‘Alī ibn Mu‘īn ibn Aḥmad. The bottom of the colophon has been defaced.
Arabic. 302 leaves (fol. 1b-302b). Dimensions 21.6 x 12.5 cm; text area 14.4 x 7.3 cm; 22 lines per page. The title is given on fol. 1b, line 13. The title page (fol. 1a) states that the treatise is a commentary on the Mūjiz (Sharḥ Mūjiz al-Qanun fī ‘ilm al-ṭibb), also called (al-musamma bi-) Ḥall al-Mūjiz. The author's name is given on the title page (fol. 1a) as al-Āqsarā’ī. The name of the author of the Mūjiz is given (fol. 1b, line 8) as al-Hasan al-Qurashi known as (al-ma‘ruf bi-) Ibn al-Nafīs.
The copy is dated in the colophon on fol. 302b, lines 11-16, where it is said the the copyist ‘Alī ibn Mu‘īn ibn Aḥmad completed it in the month of Jumadá I, 810 [= October 1407]. The date was erroneously given by Schullian/Sommer, p. 319, as 803. Hamarneh, "NLM" reads the date as 801.
There are copious marginalia in several hands, especially near the start of the volume, including quotations from other commentaries on the Canon on Medicine by Avicenna. There are also marginal corrections by the copyist.
It is a very fine copy, and one of the earliest preserved copies of this commentary. On fol. 167b there is a schematic illustration of the visual system, drawn in red and black ink.
The biscuit, semi-glossy paper has visible laid lines, with only an occasional trace of a chain line. The preliminary leaves are of watermarked paper, with laid lines and single chain lines. Fol. 89 is also watermarked paper. The edges have been trimmed from their original size. The paper is waterstained near the edges and slightly soiled with grime and a few grease spots. Repairs have been made to the edges of a number of the folios.
The volume consists of 302 leaves and six preliminary leaves. Preliminary fols. [1b-5a] contain a table of contents written in a later hand on more recent paper. Fols. [1a], [5b] and [6ab] of the preliminary leaves are blank.
On fol. 1a there are three owners' stamps, one dated 1045 [= 1635-6], and an owner's written note dated the month of Muharram 1040 [= August-September 1630] . On fol. 1b there is a repetition of one of the undated stamps and an impression in the margin of yet another owner's stamp.
The volume was purchased in 1941 by the Army Medical Library, apparently from A.S. Yahuda, though no detailed information is available on its provenance.
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This very popular commentary on the Mujiz of Ibn al-Nafīs was written in Samarqand for the ruler Ulugh Beg, for whom the author was court physician. In at least two of the preserved copies (NLM MS A 63 and Oxford, Bodleian Library MS Bruce 46) there is a preface in which there is discussion of the circumstances in which he came to make the commentary and its dedication to Ulugh Beg. According to the 17th-century Ottoman historian Hajji Khalifah, this treatise had great authority because it was the best commentary that had been written on the Mūjiz (see Hajji Khalifah, Kashf al-zunun, ed. Flugel (Leipzig 1835-58), vol. 6, p. 252). The commentary was most often known simply as "The Commentary on the Mūjiz" (Sharḥ al-Mūjiz), but it occasionally had other titles derived from the name of the author: al-Nafīsi ("Nafīs's [book]") and al-Nafīisi Sharḥ al-Mūjiz ("Nafīs's Commentary on the Mūjiz).
Nafīs ibn ‘Iwāḍ al-Kirmānī finished writing it on the first day of of the month of Dhu al-Hijjah 841 [26 May 1438] in Samarqand, as is explained in a passage that occurs at end of treatise in a number of preserved copies, including the copy at NLM. In some copies, also including the one at NLM, there is an additional statement at the end in which he says that he dictated glosses (hawashin) on many passages in the book while in the city of Kirman. These statements were repeated in the 17th century by the historian Hajji Khalifah (see Hajji Khalifah, Kashf al-zunun, ed. Flugel (Leipzig 1835-58), vol. 6, p. 252, lines 5-7).
For other copies, see Ullmann, Medizin, p. p. 173 note 4; Dietrich, Medicinalia, p. 92-94 no. 35; Iskandar "Wellcome", p. 151-154; Adam Gacek, Arabic Manuscripts in the Libraries of McGill University: Union Catalog (Montreal: McGill University, 1991), p. 188-190 no. 213; Usamah Nasir Naqshabandi, Makhtutat al-tibb wa-al-saydalah wa-al-baytarah fi Maktabat al-Muthaf al-‘Iraqi (Baghdad: Wizarad al-Thaqafah wa-al-I‘lam, 1981), p. 196-200, no. 382-393; and Savage-Smith, "Bodleian", MSS Marsh 141, Ind. Inst. Arab. 11, Pococke 174, and Bruce 46.
Sharḥ al-Mūjiz (MS A 63)
The beginning of the commentary composed in Samarqand in 1438/841 H by Nafīs ibn ‘Iwāḍ al-Kirmānī on the Mūjiz of Ibn al-Nafīs. The copy itself is undated but could be 15th or 16th century. A statement at the end of the treatise that Nafīs the physician (al-tabib) copied it sugggests the possibility that this is a autograph copy in the handwriting of the author.
Arabic. 429 leaves (fols. 1b-429b). Dimensions 26 x 16; text area 17 x 9 cm; 25 lines per page. The title is taken from the text (fol. 1b, line 15). The author's name is given on fol. 1b, line 9, as Nafīs ibn ‘Iwad ibn al-Hakīm al-mutatabbib. The name of the author of the Mūjiz appears on fol. 1b, line 16, as ‘Ala’ al-Dīn ‘Alī ibn Abī al-Hazm al-Qurashi.
This is a complete copy.
The copy is undated. At the end of the treatise (fol. 429b, lines 3-9) there is the statement that the composition was finished in Samarqand on the first day (ghurrah) of the month Dhu al-Hijjah 841 [= 26 May 1438], with the added comment of the author "I dictated glosses (al-hawashin) on many passages of the book while in Kirman." These statements occur in some other preserved copies of the treatise. Further down this same folio. (429b, line 12) there is a statement that Nafis the physician (al-tabib) copied it (harrarahu). The name Nafīs has been defaced slightly, and the formulation is not that usually employed in a colophon where the scribe is being named. Yet this statement does suggest the possibility that this manuscript is an autograph copy by the author himself. The nature of the paper, ink, and script are consistent with a 15th century date.
The text is written in a medium-small, compact nasta‘liq script. The text area has been frame-ruled. Dense black ink, with headings in red and red overlinings. There are red marginal headings, but no catchwords. There are marginalia in several hands and corrections in the hand of the copyist.
The semi-glossy paper is of beige color, except for 20 leaves which have been dyed a dark orangy-brown. The paper has wavy horizontal laid lines and chain lines in groups of 3's. The paper is slightly worm-eaten and some pages are waterdamaged. The edges have been trimmed from their original size, and some leaves have been repaired.
The volume consists of 429 leaves. Fol. 1a is blank except for owners' stamps and signatures.
The volume is bound in pasteboards covered with brown leather and decorated with blind stamped mandorla medallions with pendants. The spine has been repaired. There are modern endpapers and pastedowns.
On fol. 1a there are three owners' signatures, two completely defaced and the third with the date defaced but giving the name Hafiz Ibrahim. There are also two circular stamps, one dated 1185 [= 1771-2] with the name Jamīl Ismā‘īl Muzahhar..(?) and the other undated with the name Amīn ..?.. al-Sayyid Muḥammad.
The volume was purchased in 1941 by the Army Medical Library from A.S. Yahuda, who acquired it from a scholar in Al Qosh in Iraq.
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