Compression fractures of the back are broken vertebrae. Vertabrae are the bones of the spine.
Compression fractures of the vertebrae can be caused by:
Having many fractures of the vertabrae can lead to kyphosis. This is a hump-like curvature of the spine.
Compression fractures can occur suddenly. This can cause severe back pain that is:
Compression fractures due to osteoporosis may cause no symptoms at first and may only be discovered when x-rays of the spine are done for other reasons. Over time, the following symptoms may occur:
Pressure on the spinal cord from hunched over posture can in rare cases cause:
Your doctor will perform a physical exam. This may show:
A spine x-ray shows at least one compressed vertebra that is shorter than the other vertebrae.
Other tests that may be done:
Most compression fractures are seen in older people with osteoporosis. These fractures often do not cause injury to the spinal cord. The condition is usually treated with medicines and calcium supplements to prevent further fractures.
Pain may be treated with:
Other treatments may include:
Surgery may be done if you have severe and disabling pain for more than 2 months that does not get better with other treatments. Surgery can include:
Other surgery may be done to remove bone if the fracture is due to a tumor.
After surgery you may need:
Most compression fractures due to injury heal in 8 - 10 weeks with rest, wearing a brace, and pain medicines. However, recovery can take much longer if you had surgery.
Fractures due to osteoporosis often become less painful with rest and pain medicines. Some fractures, though, can lead to long-term (chronic) pain and disability.
Medicines to treat osteoporosis can help prevent future fractures. But they cannot reverse damage that has already occurred.
For compression fractures caused by tumors, the outcome depends on the type of tumor involved. Tumors that involve the spine include:
Complications may include:
Call your health care provider if:
Treating and preventing osteoporosis is the most effective way to prevent these fractures.
Vertebral compression fractures
Cornell CN, Sculco TP. Orthopedic disorders. In: Duthie EH, Katz PR, Malone ML, eds. Practice of Geriatrics. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 37.
Klazen CA, Lohle PN, de Vries J, et al. Vertebroplasty versus conservative treatment in acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (Vertos II): an open-label randomised trial. Lancet. 2010 Sep 25;376(9746):1085-92.
Wardlaw D, Cummings SR, Van Meirhaeghe J, et al. Efficacy and safety of balloon kyphoplasty compared with non-surgical care for vertebral compression fracture (FREE): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2009;373(9668):1016-24.
Updated by: C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, David R. Eltz, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.
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