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December 02, 2009 [posted]
December 14, 2009 [corrected] [corrected]

MEDLINE® Data Changes — 2010

graphical image of the letter A

At this time each year the NLM Technical Bulletin traditionally includes information about changes made to MEDLINE during annual National Library of Medicine® (NLM®) maintenance known as Year-End Processing (YEP). This article collects, in one place, the notable data changes for 2010. Some topics may be linked to another article where details will be found. For information about how this maintenance affects the NLM schedule for adding indexed MEDLINE citations to PubMed®, see the article, MEDLINE® /PubMed® Year-End Processing Activities.

Two additional resources, Annual MEDLINE/PubMed Year-End Processing (YEP): Impact on Searching During Fall 2009 and Annual MEDLINE/PubMed Year-End Processing (YEP): Background Information, include examples of typical changes that take place in MEDLINE citations during YEP.

MeSH® Vocabulary Updated for 2010

The MeSH Browser currently includes a link to the 2010 MeSH vocabulary. Searchers should consult the Browser to find MeSH headings of interest and their relationships to other headings. The Browser contains MeSH Heading records that may include scope notes, annotations, entry terms, history notes, allowable qualifiers (subheadings), previous headings and other information. It also includes Subheading records and Supplementary Concept Records (SCRs) for substances that are not MeSH Headings.

The MeSH Section homepage provides a link under "All About MeSH" to the Introduction of 2010 MeSH and under "Obtaining MeSH" to download electronic versions.

The MeSH Tree Structures are also available online in both PDF and HTML formats with all indented terms showing.

For highlights about 2010 MeSH see the forthcoming article, What's New for 2010 MeSH.

The PubMed MeSH database and translation tables will also be updated to reflect 2010 MeSH in mid-December when YEP activities are complete and the newly maintained MEDLINE data are available in PubMed.

Updated MeSH in MEDLINE Citations

MEDLINE records with updated MeSH will be in PubMed in mid-December 2009. See the Changing Saved Searches Quick Tour for details on revising My NCBI saved searches.

The MeSH Section homepage provides links to descriptions of MeSH maintenance. The About Updates link under the "MEDLINE Citation Maintenance" section explains how NLM prepares the changes in a machine-readable form for others to use. To access the XML files for the tasks processed for this maintenance, click on the "Download XML Files" link under this same section; the 2010 changes should be available sometime in January 2010. This information is helpful for those individuals or organizations using MeSH headings in their own application (such as indexing curricula guides) and want to update those applications with the new version of MeSH.

New MeSH Headings

This year 422 new MeSH Headings were added.

Typically, NLM does not retrospectively re-index MEDLINE citations with new MeSH Heading concepts. Therefore, searching PubMed for a new MeSH term tagged with [mh] or [majr] effectively limits retrieval to citations indexed after the term was introduced. PubMed Automatic Term Mapping (ATM) expands an untagged subject search to include both MeSH Terms and All Fields index terms and may retrieve relevant citations indexed before the introduction of a new MeSH term. Searchers may consult the MeSH Browser or the MeSH database to see the Previous Indexing terms most likely used before the new MeSH Heading was introduced.

Brand New Concepts

Examples of new MeSH headings of special interest to searchers are highlighted below by Category. You can browse all of the new 2010 concepts on the MeSH New Descriptors Web page.

Category A - Anatomy
Bacterial Structures
CA1 Region, Hippocampal
CA2 Region, Hippocampal
CA3 Region, Hippocampal
Cervical Rib
Fungal Structures
Germ Cells, Plant
Uterine Artery
Viral Structures
Category B - Organisms
Human T-lymphotropic virus 3
Influenza A Virus, H1N2 Subtype
Proboscidea Mammal
Simian T-lymphotropic virus 3
Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli
Category C - Diseases
Alien Hand Syndrome
Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction
Asthma, Aspirin-Induced
Contrecoup Injury
Corpse Dismemberment
Inferior Wall Myocardial Infarction
Latent Tuberculosis
Leprosy, Multibacillary
Leprosy, Paucibacillary
Obesity, Abdominal
Pelvic Organ Prolapse
Additionally a number of Rare Disease terms were added.
Category D - Chemicals and Drugs
Antibodies, Neutralizing
Behind-the-Counter Drugs
Dentin Desensitizing Agents
Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors
Neuronal Tract-Tracers
Ubiquitinated Proteins
Category E - Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment
Animal Assisted Therapy
Cathode Ray Tube
Child Restraint Systems
Compassionate Use Trials
Delayed Diagnosis
Early Termination of Clinical Trials
Electronic Health Records
Enzyme Replacement Therapy
Epicardial Mapping
Equine-Assisted Therapy
Health Records, Personal
Individualized Medicine
Insecticide-Treated Bednets
Molecular Imaging
Mosquito Nets
Off-Label Use
Patient Positioning
Preoperative Period
Recreation Therapy
Single Embryo Transfer
Category F - Psychiatry and Psychology
Emotional Intelligence
Information Seeking Behavior
Category G - Biological Sciences
Adaptive, Immunity
Bacterial Shedding
Climate Change
Colony Collapse
Cross Protection
Endangered Species
Gametogenesis, Plant
Genetic Loci
Global Warming
Immune Evasion
Immunity, Humoral
Microbial Interactions
t-Complex Genome Region
Viral Tropism
Virus Release
Category H - Natural Sciences
Advanced Practice Nursing
Chemistry, Analytic
Sleep Medicine Specialty
Travel Medicine
Category I - Anthropology, Education, Sociology and Social Phenomena
Health Literacy
Independent Living
Medical Tourism
Category J – Technology, Industry, and Agriculture
Automation, Laboratory
Fast Foods
Food, Preserved
Functional Food
Category K – Humanities
Therapeutic Equipoise
Therapeutic Misconception
Category L - Information Science
Biometric Identification
Data Mining
Search Engine
Webcasts as Topic
Category M - Named Groups
Category N - Health Care
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
Comparative Effectiveness Research
Drug Recalls
Economic Development
Economic Recession
Medical Device Recalls
Post-Exposure Prophylaxis
Product Recalls and Withdrawals
Safety-Based Drug Withdrawals
Safety-Based Medical Device Withdrawals
Category Z - Geographicals
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
Ottoman Empire
Republic of Korea

Changes to MeSH Headings

This year 72 MeSH Headings were either changed or deleted and replaced with more up-to-date terminology. During YEP, NLM updates MeSH headings on MEDLINE citations.

Changes to citations of particular interest include:

In addition to the replaced-by heading changes, YEP includes other adjustments to MEDLINE citations to reflect 2010 MeSH vocabulary and to enhance search retrieval. These follow-on adjustments are largely the adding of more MeSH headings or Supplementary Concept Record Names of Substances (NM) to citations to help searchers refine retrieval. In some cases, the changes clarify areas where a single concept existed before, but it is now represented by two or more specific concepts.

These types of changes, along with others documented on the Annual MEDLINE/PubMed Year-End Processing (YEP): Background Information Web page, suggest the importance of routinely using the PubMed Details feature when searching to see how terms are mapped with the new year's vocabulary and then checking the MeSH Browser or the MeSH database for clarification. Additional information is also available in the article, Skill Kit: The Effects of Year End Processing (YEP) on Saved Searches or RSS Feeds.

Two New Publication Types for 2010

For 2010, NLM will begin using two new Publication Types, Webcasts and a new research support publication type Research Support, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.

Notable MeSH Changes and Related Impact on Searching

The old Protozoa heading was deleted and replaced in 2010 by Eukaryota. Protozoa now maps to the subheading /parasitology. Protozoa and its indentions were also indexed with Animals in the past. This coordination is no longer in effect for 2010 MeSH for the heading Eukaryota and its indentions. Precoordinated headings related to protozoa still exist in 2010 MeSH, e.g.;

Antibiodies, Protozoan
Antigens, Protozoan
DNA, Protozoan
Genes, Protozoan
Protozoan Infections

Hemorrhagic Disease of Newborn is replaced by Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding; however, this term is coordinated with Infant, Newborn only if it is pertinent.

Immunity, Humoral is a new MeSH Heading and no longer an Entry Term to Antibody Formation.

Global Warming is a new MeSH Heading and no longer an Entry Term to Greenhouse Effect.

Economic Recession is a new MeSH Heading and no longer an Entry Term to Economics.

Korea is now defined as an historical geographic concept. Two new MeSH Headings are:

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (has an entry term of North Korea)
Republic of Korea (has an entry term of South Korea)

The new MeSH Heading, Compassionate Use Trials, will not be routinely coordinated with any of the Clinical Trial Publication Types, unless the study design meets the MeSH definition of a clinical trial.

The Publication Type Webcasts will be used when the link to a Webcast is an integral part of an article, or if the Webcast represents the entire article.

Other changes that affect searching include:

The MeSH Heading Rabbits has two new Entry Terms: Rabbits, New Zealand and Rabbits, Chinchilla.

Entry Combination Revisions

This year during YEP, NLM will again retrospectively replace certain MeSH heading/subheading combinations, known as Entry Combinations, with the new precoordinated MeSH heading. If you get no retrieval for a MeSH Heading/subheading combination check the heading in the 2010 MeSH Browser to see if the Entry Combination information indicates a different term.

Below are the eleven Entry Combinations new for 2010:

Previous MeSH Heading/Subheading
(Entry Combination)

Replaced-by Heading for 2010

Aminosalicylic Acid/analogs & derivatives Aminosalicylic Acids
Arginase/deficiency Hyperargininemia
Argininosuccinate Lyase/deficiency Argininosuccinic Aciduria
Caspase 8/deficiency Alstrom Syndrome
Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/deficiency Hereditary Angioedema Types I and II
Cysteine Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors
Exopeptidases/antagonists & inhibitors Protease Inhibitors
Hepatitis, Chronic/chemically induced Drug-Induced Liver Injury, Chronic
Histone Deacetylases/antagonists & inhibitors Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors
Iduronate Sulfatase/deficiency Mucopolysaccharidosis II
Liver Diseases/chemically induced Drug-Induced Liver Injury
Methylmalonyl-CoA Decarboxylase/deficiency Propionic Acidemia
Nurses/ethics Ethics, Nursing
Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase/deficiency Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase Deficiency Disease
Pregnancy/complications Pregnancy Complications
Serine Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors Serine Proteinase Inhibitors
Shellfish/poisoning Shellfish Poisoning
Steryl-Sulfatase/deficiency Ichthyosis, X-Linked

Additional Changes to MEDLINE and OLDMEDLINE Data

  1. [Editor's Note: This sentence was corrected on December 14, 2009.]
    Linking ISSN data will be included with the 2010 PubMed system:
    The ISSN International Center assigned new Linking ISSN data which NLM added to most existing serial records in LocatorPlus® and to those journal article citations.
  2. [Editor's Note: This sentence was corrected on December 14, 2009.]
    International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Abbreviations added to all serial records and to journal citations:
    As a part of Year-End Processing, ISO Abbreviations were added to the serial records for indexed journals, and therefore, the citations for these journals will have ISO Abbreviations when the new system comes up in mid-December.
  3. Cites:
    Cites will contain PMIDs and source data for items in the bibliography or list of references at the end of an article that is deposited in PubMed Central® (PMC). Cites will contain only PMIDs and source data for citations where an actual PMID for the cited article exists in the NLM Data Creation and Maintenance System (DCMS). It is therefore possible for a citation to be present in the list of references for an article and yet the PMID is not included in the Cites list because it is not present in the DCMS. Over 26.5 million Cites were added to 1,092,196 PubMed citations.
  4. New Granting Organization:
    Canadian Institutes of Health Research was added in October 2009 as a granting agency.
  5. Wellcome Trust retrospective update:
    On September 29, 2009 Wellcome Trust funding information was added to roughly 22,000 MEDLINE citations for articles published from 1984-1999.
  6. Language Code changes:
    The Library of Congress MARC language codes for Croatian and Serbian languages have changed:
    Croatian is now hrv; it was scr.
    Serbian is now srp; it was scc.
    NLM processed the changes for these languages on MEDLINE citations in mid-November.

Journal Subject Term changes for 2010

Two of the Subject Terms assigned to MEDLINE journals have changed as part of Year-End Processing changes for 2010 MeSH. The two changes are:

Cytology was replaced by Cell Biology
Chemistry, Analytical was replaced by Chemistry Techniques, Analytical

By Sara Tybaert
MEDLARS Management Section

Tybaert S. MEDLINE® Data Changes — 2010. NLM Tech Bull. 2009 Nov-Dec (371):e8.

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