Al-Tāfilātī was an authority in Jerusalem in the Hanafi school of jurisprudence. This information is gleaned from a statement made in an Arabic treatise on Prophetic medicine as it relates particularly to bloodletting and cupping, preserved in a unique copy now at NLM (MS A 88/III). The copy of this treatise was made in 1802, and therefore we can say with confidence that he was active before that date.
Nothing else is known of his life. Sommer gave the date of death as 1777 (Schullian/Sommer, p. 327) , and this date was repeated by Hamarneh (Hamarneh, "NLM", p. 96). The source for this date death has not been determined.
Tamakrūtī, Muḥammad ‘Abd Allāh ibn Muḥammad ibn Mas‘ūd al-Dar‘ī al-Tafjarūtī
(d. after 1572/980)
[عبد الله ابن محمد ابن مسعود الدرعى التفجروتى [التمجروتى التمغروتى
Muḥammad ‘Abd Allāh ibn Muḥammad ibn Mas‘ūd al-Dar‘ī al-Tafjarūtī al-Tamakrūtī is known only by one treatise -- a lengthy Arabic treatise on sexual hygiene, of which NLM has one of the four recorded copies (MS A 89, item 1). Virtually nothing is known of this author except that he died after 1572/980 and before 1720/1132, when a copy now in Berlin was made. His name is also sometimes written as al-Tamjarūtī, al-Tamajrūtī, and al-Tamghrūtī.
See GAL-S vol. 2, p. 369: Gregor Schoeler, Arabische Handschriften, Teil II [Verzeichnis der orientalischen Handschriften in Deutschland, Band XVII, Reihe B, Teil 2] (Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, 1990), pp. 152-4 no. 157.
Born in Jerusalem, al-Tamīmī went to Egypt about the year 970/360 and entered the service of the wazir to the first Fatimid ruler in Cairo. His treatise on antidotes for poisons is not preserved today except for the extensive quotations contained in one manuscript now at NLM (MS A 64).
Born 1525 in Cairo or Damascus in 1520/927 (or 1525/932), Taqī al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Ma‘rūf became an important astronomer in Istanbul, where he died in1585/993. It was he who was primarily responsible for the Ottoman Sultan Murad III building an observatory in 1579/987, though it was pulled down a few months later following Taqī al-Dīn's predicition (on the basis of the comet of 1577) of an Ottoman victory that proved to be incorrect. He composed astronomical handbooks and treatises on various astronomical instruments and on mechanical clocks.
For his life and writings, see D.A. King 'Takī al-Dīn' in EI (2nd ed.), vol. 10, pp. 132-3; and David A. King, A Survey of the Scientific manuscripts in the Egyptian National Library [American Research Center in Egypt, Catalogs vol. 5] (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1986) p. 171-2 entry H12.
From a prominent family of Ottoman Turkish scholars, Abū al-Khayr ibn Muṣliḥ al-Din Muṣṭafá Ṭāshköprüzāde was born at Bursa in 1495/901 and became a judge (qadi) in Istanbul until he had to resign in 1554/961 to do his failing eyesight. Thereafter, he dictated more than nineteen theological and encyclopaedic works, including a treatise on the plague.
>The 13th-century scholar Aḥmad ibn Yūsuf al-Tīfāshī wrote several treatises concerned with sexual hygiene, one of which is preserved in a copy at NLM (MS A 51). He is, however, primarily known for his lapidary, which was the most famous and most comprehensive medieval Arabic treatise on the use of minerals. It covers 25 gems and minerals in great detail, giving medicine and magical uses for each as well as some Persian etymologies of the names. It is preserved in numerous manuscript copies and was used by many subsequent writes.
Mu'ayyad al-Din al-Ṭughrā’ī, born at Isfahan in 1061/452, was an important alchemist, poet, and administrative secretary. He ultimately became the second most senior official (after the vizier, wazir) in the civil administration of the Saljuk empire. He was, however, executed in 1121/515 having been accused (unjustifiably, according to most historians) of being an apostate.
He was a well-known and prolific writer on astrology and alchemy, and many of his poems (diwan) are preserved today as well. In the field of alchemy, al-Ṭughrā’ī is best known for his large compendium titled Mafatih al-rahmah wa-masabih al-ḥikmah, which incorporated extensive extracts from earlier Arabic alchemical writings. In 1112/505, he also composed Kitāb Haqa'iq al-istishhad, a rebuttal of a refutation of alchemy written by Ibn Sīnā (Avicenna).
Muḥammad Mu’min ibn Mīr Muḥammad Zamān Daylamī Tunakābunī was an author on various medical and religious topics. He based his large Persian compendium of simple and compound remedies, which according to the text was composed in 1679/1090, on Arabic authorities (particularly Ibn al-Bayṭār whose work he knew at one remove) and on Indian sources. His treatise was dedicated to Shah Sulaymān, who ruled from 1666 to 1694.