History of Medicine
History of Anatomy
275 BCE Herophilus teaches anatomy, Alexandria, Egypt; performs dissections of human bodies.
ca. 150 Galen dissects apes, monkeys, cows, dogs; writes treatises on human anatomy.
ca. 600-1100 Knowledge of Greek anatomical treatises lost to Western Europeans, but retained in Byzantium and the Islamic world. Islamic scholars translate Greek anatomical treatises into Arabic.
1100s-1500s Galen’s anatomical treatises translated from Arabic into Latin, later from the Greek originals.
1235 First European medical school founded at Salerno, Italy; human bodies are publicly dissected.
1316 Mondino de’Liuzzi stages public dissections, Bologna, Italy; writes Anatomia.
1450s Moveable type invented; Gutenberg Bible printed (1455). Copperplate engraving invented.
1490 Anatomical theater opens in Padua, Italy.
1491 First illustrated printed medical book published in Venice, Johannes de Ketham, Fasciculus medicinae.
ca. 1500-1540 Earliest printed illustrated anatomies.
1510 Leonardo da Vinci dissects human beings, makes anatomical drawings.
1543 First profusely illustrated printed anatomy, Vesalius’ De Humani Corporis Fabrica.
Schwammerdam, Ruysch and others start making anatomical specimens and museums.
Bidloo starts movement toward greater anatomical realism.
First art academies founded; anatomy is a key part of the curriculum.
1600-1900 Anatomy plays an important role in medical education and research.
Next Section : Anatomical Dreamtime