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Skeleton of a boy sitting on the 'D' of 'Dream', from Francesco Bertinatti, Elementi di anatomia fisiologica applicata alle belle arti figurative (Turin, 1837-39).  Artist: Mecco Leone. Lithograph
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A dissected, armless bearded man opened up to reveal his main organs; each feature of the image is assigned a Hebrew letter. Cropped, from Toviyah Kats, Ma’a’seh Toviyah (Venice, 1708). Woodcut. National Library of Medicine.

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Ma’a’seh Toviyah

Venice, 1708. Woodcut. National Library of Medicine.

Toviyah Kats
(ca. 1652-1729)

This illustration from a Hebrew encyclopedia pairs the interior of a human interior with the interior of a house, a visual metaphor: the organs, like rooms in a house, have different functions. Kats, one of the first Jews to study medicine at a German university, completed his degree at Padua and served as court physician to the Ottoman Sultan.

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