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Skeleton of a boy sitting on the 'D' of 'Dream', from Francesco Bertinatti, Elementi di anatomia fisiologica applicata alle belle arti figurative (Turin, 1837-39).  Artist: Mecco Leone. Lithograph
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A black standing figure, shown with brain and nerves in white, spinal nerves in green. Cropped, from Edwin Hartley Pratt, The composite man as comprehended in fourteen anatomical impersonations (2d ed.; Chicago, 1901). Relief halftone. Artist: Frederick Williams.

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The composite man as comprehended in fourteen anatomical impersonations. 2nd ed.

Chicago, 1901. Relief halftone. National Library of Medicine.

Edwin Hartley Pratt

Frederick Williams

A homeopathic practitioner, Pratt ardently recommended "orificial surgery"—operations on the mouth, nose, ears, rectum, cervix, urethra—for problems such as constipation, eczema, insanity, tuberculosis, or just for maintenance of health. His enthusiasm for surgery led to an emphasis on anatomy in writings for the public.

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