Related Resources at NLM
Specialized Information Services
Specialized Information Services (SIS) produces information resources on a range of topics covering toxicology, environmental health, HIV/AIDS, drug and consumer product information, and disaster/emergency preparedness and response.
The Web site includes journal literature, clinical trials and treatment information, meeting abstracts, and related resources. Among these related resources are links to government websites focused on AIDS, resources for various targeted groups including educators, health professionals, and scientists, as well as a searchable database of relevant AIDS information.
PubMed Central (PMC) is a free archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health’s National Library of Medicine (NIH/NLM). In keeping with NLM’s legislative mandate to collect and preserve the biomedical literature, PMC serves as a digital counterpart to NLM’s extensive print journal collection. Launched in February 2000, PMC was developed and is managed by NLM’s National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).
There are a variety of HIV/AIDS topics to research on the PMC site, below are a selection of subjects.
Early Articles on AIDS
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
- Dowdle, W.R. “The epidemiology of AIDS.” Public Health Rep 98, no. 4 (1983):308–312.
- Gilmore, N. J., R. Beaulieu, M. Steben, M. Laverdière “AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.” Canadian Medical Association Journal, 1983 June 1; 128(11): 1281–1284.
- Quagliarello, V. “The Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: current status.” Yale Journal of Biological Medicine, 1982 Sep-Dec; 55(5-6): 443–452.
- Salahuddin, S. Z., P. D. Markham, M. Popovic, M. G. Sarngadharan, S. Orndorff, A. Fladagar, A. Patel, J. Gold, R. C. Gallo “Isolation of infectious human T-cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related complex (ARC) and from healthy carriers: a study of risk groups and tissue sources.” Proceeding of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America. 1985 August; 82(16): 5530–5534.
- Coutinho, R. A. et al. “Introduction of lymphadenopathy associated virus or human lymphotropic virus (LAV/HTLV-III) into the male homosexual community in Amsterdam.” Medicine 62, no. 1 (1986): 38–43.
Early Articles Studying AZT
Early articles studying azidothymidine (AZT) also known as Zidovudine (INN), AZT was the first antiviral shown to be effective against AIDS.
SEARCH TERMS: Zidovudine, INN, Azidothymidine, AZT
- Smith, M. S.; E. L. Brian; J. S. Pagano “Resumption of virus production after human immunodeficiency virus infection of T lymphocytes in the presence of azidothymidine.” Journal of Virology 61, no. 12 (1987): 3769–3773.
AZT Research Today
- Thomas Aschacher et al. “The Combined Use of Known Antiviral Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors AZT and DDI Induce Anticancer Effects at Low Concentrations.” Neoplasia 14, no. 1 (2012): 44–53.
Study of HIV/AIDS in Primates
- P. L. Nara, et al. “Persistent infection of chimpanzees with human immunodeficiency virus: serological responses and properties of reisolated viruses.” Journal of Virology 61, no. 10 (1987): 3173–3180.
A Brief Selection of Research on HIV/AIDS Today
- Nitin K. Saksena, et al. “HIV reservoirs in vivo and new strategies for possible eradication of HIV from the reservoir sites” HIV AIDS 2010 no. 2 (2010): 103–122.
- Myron S. Cohen, et al. “Prevention of HIV-1 Infection with Early Antiretroviral Therapy” New England Journal of Medicine 365, no. 6 (2011): 493-505
- Tyagi, Mudit; Michael Bukrinsky. “Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Latency: The Major Hurdle in HIV Eradication.” Molecular Medicine 18, no. 1 (2012): 1096–1108.
- People with HIV/AIDS have faced stigma in their daily lives since the early 1980s when AIDS first arose. This 2008 article is a good starting point to learn more from a scientific point of view.
Anish P. Mahajan, et al. “Stigma in the HIV/AIDS epidemic: A review of the literature and recommendations for the way forward.” AIDS 22, Supplemental 2 (2008): S67–S79.
Researchers in the Exhibit
For those interested in learning more about the researchers mentioned in the exhibit:
Dr. Anthony S. Fauci was appointed Director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) in 1984. In the early years of AIDS research he made important contributions to the understanding of how AIDS destroys the immune system. He also pushed for increased funding to study the disease during the early years of the virus’s immergence. Fauci continues to research the scope of the body’s response to the AIDS virus and the mechanisms of HIV infection.
- P. D. Smith, Anthony Fauci, et al. “Monocyte function in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Defective chemotaxis.” Journal of Clinical Investigation 74, no. 6 (1984): 2121–2128.
- Fauci, Anthony S. “Current issues in developing a strategy for dealing with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 83, no. 24 (1986): 9278-83.
- Kinter, Audrey L.; Anthony S. Fauci et al. “HIV replication in CD4+ T cells of HIV-infected individuals is regulated by a balance between the viral suppressive effects of endogenous β-chemokines and the viral inductive effects of other endogenous cytokines” Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 93, no. 24 (1996): 14076–14081.
Dr. Luc Montagnier, working at the Institute Pasteur in France was one of the co-discoverers of HIV1 in 1984. Two years later he isolated the second AIDS virus HIV2 from West African patients. Along with Francoise Barre-Sinoussi, Montagnier was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine in 2008.
- Alouf, J. E.; Luc Montagnier et al. “High production of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome virus (lymphadenopathy-associated virus) by human T lymphocytes stimulated by streptococcal mitogenic toxins.” Journal of Clinical Microbiology 24, no. 4 (1984): 639–641.
- Vazeux, R. ; Luc Montagnier et al. “AIDS Subacute Encephalitis: Identification of HIV-Infected Cells” American Journal of Pathology 126, no. 3 (1987): 403–410.
- Emerman, M.; Luc Montagnier et al. “The specificity of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 transactivator is different from that of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.” EMBO Journal 6, no. 12 (1987): 3755-3760.
Dr. Robert C. Gallo had recently discovered the first two human retroviruses, HTLV-I and HTLV-II, when he began studying the new AIDS disease in the early 1980s. In 1984 he co-discovered HIV as the cause of AIDS, and also pioneered the development of the HIV blood test. He brought to light in 1996 that a natural compound known as chemokines can block the HIV virus and halt the progression of AIDS, which was hailed by Science magazine as one of that year's most important scientific breakthroughs.
- Gallo published his findings on chemokines in the latter half of the 1990’s.
Zagury, Daniel ; Robert Gallo et al. “C-C chemokines, pivotal in protection against HIV type 1 infection.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 95, no. 7 (1998): 3857–3861.
Past NLM Exhibitions
These past exhibitions at the National Library of Medicine addressed various aspects of HIV/AIDS.
A past exhibit produced by NLM covered HIV/AIDS as part of the wider theme of global health, and touched on a wide range of subjects from the scientific advances, social responses and discrimination in America, and contextualizing the American AIDS story within a wider global context.
This exhibit concentrated on the social aspects of HIV/AIDS, and highlighted the NLM collection of ephemera including posters, buttons, and comics.