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X-ray of Masha and Dasha showing them joined together with legs on the top and bottom and heads opposite on the left and right.Research on Conjoined Twins
ca. 1957 / 44:46
Directed by Petr Anokhin & Tatiana Alekseeva
Sound, black-and-white.


Selected filmography

Birgit Beumers, A History of Russian Cinema (Oxford University Press, 2009).

Juliet Butler, Masha und Dasha. Autobiographie eines siamesischen Zwillingspaares (Fischer Scherz, 2000).

Galina G. Egiazaryan & Konstantin V. Sudakov, “Theory of Functional Systems in the Scientific School of P.K. Anokhin,” Journal of the History of the Neurosciences 16 (2007):194–205.

Peter Kenez, Cinema and Soviet Society, 1917–1953 (Cambridge University Press, 1992).

Nikolai Krementsov, Revolutionary Experiments: The Quest for Immortality in Bolshevik Science and Fiction (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013).

___, Stalinist Science (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997).

Jay Leyda, Kino: A History of Russian and Soviet Film (Princeton University Press, 1983), 3d ed.

“Masha and Dasha: Rare Study of Russia’s Siamese twins,” Life Magazine, 8 April 1966: 67-69.

Christine Quigley, Conjoined Twins: An Historical, Biological and Ethical Issues Encyclopedia (London: McFarland, 2003).

Richard Taylor and Derek Spring, eds., Stalinism and Soviet Cinema (Routledge, 1993).

Daniel P. Todes, Pavlov’s Physiology Factory (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2002).

___, Ivan Pavlov: A Russian Life in Science (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014).

Denise J. Youngblood, Movies for the Masses: Popular Cinema and Soviet Society in the 1920’s (Cambridge University Press, 1992)

Selected filmography: Ivan Pavlov and his research

The Mechanics of the Brain (1926), a documentary, available (with English subtitles) at; with Russian subtitles at numerous sites.

Academician Ivan Pavlov (1936), a documentary, available (with Russian subtitles) at|v1&order=m1

Academician Ivan Pavlov (1949), a full-length feature film, available (only in Russian) at and many other sites

Ivan Pavlov. The Search for Truth (1984), a feature mini-series in 5 episodes, (260 mins in toto), available (only in Russian) at and many other sites.

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