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Sources Used in Creating and Maintaining the MeSH Vocabulary

Staff in the Medical Subject Headings Section continually revise and update the MeSH vocabulary. Staff subject specialists are responsible for areas of the health sciences in which they have knowledge and expertise. In addition to receiving suggestions from indexers and others, staff collect new terms as they appear in the scientific literature or in emerging areas of research; define these terms within the context of existing vocabulary; and recommend their addition to MeSH. Professional societies are also consulted regarding broad organizational changes and close coordination is maintained with various specialized vocabularies.

For example, recent editions of Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Virus Taxonomy: Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses; and the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses Virus Taxonomy are consulted for the latest definitive organization in these two areas. Current editions of classic textbooks such as Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine or Robbins Pathological Basis of Disease represent a type of reference source frequently consulted.

As more information is published online, the range of formats used in verifying and checking MeSH definitions for currency and completeness is expanding. Online manuals of drugs and other chemicals as well as full text journals are now also relied upon in creating and maintaining the ever-expanding Medical Subject Headings vocabulary. A bibliography of commonly used sources is listed below by MeSH category:

MeSH Authoritative Reference Sources

  • Group A. ANATOMY
    • Standring, S. Gray’s Anatomy: The anatomical basis of clinical practice. 41st ed. 2016
    • Drake, RL. Vogl, A. Gray’s Anatomy for Students. 3rd ed. Elsevier. 2014.
    • Platzer, W. Color Atlas and Textbook of Human Anatomy: Locomotor System, Thieme Medical  s, 7th ed. 2015.
  • Group B. ORGANISMS
  • Group C. DISEASES
    • MAYO Clinic Guide to Diseases and Conditions (2015): http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions
    • Burd, L. [and others]. Encyclopedia of Diseases and Disorders. 2010
    • Bonow, RO. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, Single Volume. Expert Consult Premium Edition – Enhanced Online Features and Print. Saunders 2011.
    • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM): http://www.omim.org
    • Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD): http://www.ncats.nih.gov/gard
    • NIH Office of Rare Diseases (ORD): http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov
    • Kuman, V ed. Pathological basis of disease.  7th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier-Saunders.  2005.
    • Fritz, A et al., eds. International classification of diseases for oncology (ICD O). 3d ed. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2000: http://codes.iarc.fr/code/3902
    • Hunter, GW. Hunter's tropical medicine and emerging infectious diseases. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2000.
    • Genetics Home Reference (GHR): http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov
    • DeVita, VT. [and others] eds. Cancer: principles and practice of oncology. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 2011.
  • GROUP D. Chemicals and Drugs
  • GROUP E. Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques, and Equipment.
    • McGraw Hill dictionary of scientific and technical terms. 7th ed. New York: McGraw Hill. February 2016. ISBN-13: 978-0071608992. ISBN-10: 0071608990
    • Keller, A, Eckart M., Nucleic acids as molecular diagnostics. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH, 2015.
    • Coppol, D. Molecular pathology and diagnostics of cancer. Dordrecht: Springer, 2014.
    • Olson S, Claiborne, AB.  Accelerating the development of new drugs and diagnostics [electronic resource]: maximizing the impact of the cures acceleration network: workshop summary. Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2012.
    • O'Connor, L [and others]. Fungal Diagnostics: Methods and Protocols. New York: Springer, 2013.
    • Bilitewski, U. Microchip methods in diagnostics.  New York: Humana Press, 2009.
    • Burtis, C. [and others].  Tietz textbook of clinical chemistry and molecular diagnostics.  4th ed. St. Louis, Mo. : Elsevier Saunders, 2006
    • Popp, J. [and others]. Modern techniques for pathogen detection. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley Blackwell, 2015.
    • Slevin M, McDowell G. Handbook of vascular biology techniques. Dordrecht: Springer, 2015.
    • Gudgin Dickson E. Personal protective equipment for chemical, biological, and radiological hazards : design, evaluation, and selection. Hoboken, New Jersey. : Wiley, 2012.
  • GROUP F. Psychiatry and Psychology
    • American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed, Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2013.
    • Thapar, A. ed. Rutter's child and adolescent psychiatry. 6th ed. Ames, Iowa : Wiley, 2015.
    • Sadock, J. [and others]. Kaplan & Sadock's synopsis of psychiatry : behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry. 11 ed., Philadelphia : Wolters Kluwer, 2015.
    • Mori, A. Adenosine receptors in neurology and psychiatry. London : Academic Press.  2014.
    • Summergrad, P. [and others]. Integrated Care in Psychiatry : Redefining The Role of Mental Health. Professionals in the Medical Setting. New York : Springer, 2014
    • Leigh, H. Handbook of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry. 2nd ed. New York : Springer, 2014.
    • Moseley, D. Philosophy and psychiatry : problems, intersections, and new perspectives  New York : Routledge, 2016.
    • Dulcan, M. Dulcan's textbook of child and adolescent psychiatry.  American Psychiatric Association. 2nd ed. Arlington, VA : American Psychiatric Association, 2016.
    • Stringer, S. [and others]. Psychiatry : breaking the ICE : introductions, common tasks, emergencies for trainees. Hoboken, NJ : Wiley Blackwell, 2015.
    • Heffernon, T. The student's guide to studying psychology. 4th ed.  London ; New York: Psychology Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2016.
  • GROUP G. Phenomena and Processes References
    • Alberts, B. [and others]. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 6th ed, Taylor & Francis Group. . 2014.
    • Cruse, JM, Lewis, RE eds. Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology. Cruse, J. M., Lewis, R.E. eds. 3d ed. Boca Raton: Taylor and Francis, 2009.
    • Guyton, AC.  Textbook of medical physiology. 11th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2011
    • Hesketh, R.  The Oncogene and tumor suppressor core facts book. 2d ed., San Diego: Academic Press, 1997.
    • Jameson, JL. Principles of molecular medicine. Jameson, J. L., ed. Totowa: Humana Press, 2006.
    • King, RC. [and others]. A dictionary of genetics. 7th ed. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2006.
    • Lackie, JM [and others]. Dictionary of cell and molecular biology.  5th ed. San Diego: Academic Press, 2012.
    • Migloni, G.S. Dictionary of plant genetics and molecular biology.  New York: Hawthorne Press, 1998.
    • Porta, M., ed, A dictionary of epidemiology. . 5th ed. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2008. 
    • Smoller,WS. Biostatistics and epidemiology: a primer for health professionals. 2d ed. New York: Springer Verlag, 1995.
    • Dorland's illustrated medical dictionary. 32nd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2011.
  • GROUP H. Disciplines and Occupations References
    • Occupations.Net: http://www.onetonline.org
    • Wineman, J. Digital disciplines : attaining market leadership via the cloud, big data, social, mobile. Hoboken : Wiley, [2015]
    • SCA DIRECTORY OF OCCUPATIONS: http://www.dol.gov/whd/regs/compliance/wage/SCADirV5/SCADirectVers5.pdf
    • Converging disciplines: a transdisciplinary research approach to urban health problems. New York : Springer, 2011.
    • Learning in the synergy of multiple disciplines 4th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learn. European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning.  Berlin; New York : Springer, 2009.
  • GROUP I. Anthropology, Education, Sociology and Social Phenomena References
    • Barnard A, J Spencer. Routledge Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology. 2nd ed  : London; New York: Routledge. 2010.
    • Hahn, RA. [and others]. Anthropology and public health : bridging differences in culture and society. 2nd ed. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
    • Botin, L. [and others]. Techno-anthropology in health informatics: methodologies for improving human-technology relations. , Christian.   Amsterdam : IOS Press, 2015
  • GROUP J. Technology, Food, and Beverages References
    • Buglass, J. Handbook of Alcoholic Beverages: Technical, Analytical and Nutritional Aspects. Wiley & Sons. 2011.
    • Lawless, HT . Sensory evaluation of food: principles and practices.  2nd ed. New York: Springer, 2010.
    • Igoe, RS [and others]. Dictionary of Food Ingredients. 5th ed. Maryland: Aspen  s, 2011.
    • Art and Architecture Thesaurus.  Vols I, II, and III. Oxford University Press. NY. 1990. 
    • West G. Black’s Veterinary Dictionary. 18th ed.  London :  Black. 1992.
    • Fenner, WR. Quick reference to Veterinary Medicine. 2nd ed. Lippincott Company. Philadelphia. NY. 1991.
    • Wiley Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology, 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ. 2009
    • De Rovira, D [and others] Dictionary of flavors. 2nd ed. Publication Ames, Iowa : Wiley-Blackwell, 2008.
    • Ingram, GG. [and others] The Prentice Hall Essentials Dictionary of Culinary Arts.  2008..
    • Wiley encyclopedia of food science and technology.  Wiley-Interscience; vol. 1-4, 2nd ed. 1999.
    • Hine, RS. Concise Veterinary Dictionary. Oxford. NY. 1988.
    • Lagua, RT  [and others] Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary. 5th ed. Virginia S. Claudio. New York: Wiley, 2004
    • Plumb, DC Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th ed. Blackwell Publishing. 2015.
    • McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. 6th ed. McGraw-Hill. NY. 2003.
    • Nill, K. Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology Terms, 4th ed. CRC Press, 2006.
    • Smith, AG. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America. Oxford University Press. 2004.
  • GROUP K. Humanities References
    • Irela, FA [and others] Oxford encyclopedia of African thought.  
    • Glazier, SD ed. The encyclopedia of African and African-American religions. New York: Routledge, 2001.
    • Melton, GM. Religions of the World: A comprehensive encyclopedia of beliefs and practices. J. Gordon Melton. 2010
    • Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy. 2nd ed. Robert Audi. Ed. Cambridge. 1999.
  • GROUP L. Information Science References
    • Foundations of Library and Information Science. 3rd ed. Richard Rubin. ALA Editions. 2010
    • Reference and Information Services in the 21st Century : An Introduction by Kay Ann Cassell, Uma Hiremath. 2006. ISBN 1555705634.
    • Dictionary for Library and information science. Joan M. Reitz.  : ABC-CLIO, Incorporated. Published 2004.
  • GROUP M. Persons References
    • Bureau of Labor Statistics; Occupational Outlook Handbook: http://www.bls.gov/ooh/education-training-and-library/postsecondary-teachers.htm
    • Psycho-Educational Groups. By Nina W. Brown Accelerated Development ·263p. 
    • Encyclopedia of applied developmental science. Celia B. Fisher and Richard M. Lerner, eds. 2v. SAGE. 2005
    • African American National Biography. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. and Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham. Eds. 8v Oxford. 2008
    • Introduction to Health Care and Careers [Book] by Roxann DeLaet · Lippincott Williams and Wilkins · Paperback · 2012
    • International resource book for libraries serving disadvantaged persons Locke, Joanne, 1950- Panella, Nancy. Girolami, Margaret. International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions.   München : K.G. Saur, 2001.
    • Encyclopedia of community: From the village to the virtual world. Karen Christensen and David Levinson, eds. 4v SAGE 2003.
    • Wiener, JM [and others] Persons with disabilities : issues in health care financing and service delivery.   Washington, DC : Brookings Institution, 1995
    • McLaughlin  E. The SAGE Dictionary of Criminology. 3rd Ed. : SAGE Publications Ltd. 2013.
    • Encyclopedia of drugs, alcohol, and addictive behavior. 3rd ed. Pamela Korsmeyer and Henry R. Kranzler, eds. Macmillan. 2008.
  • GROUP N. Healthcare References
    • Creating knowledge-based healthcare organizations  Wickramasinghe, Nilmini. Gupta, Jatinder N. D. Sharma, Sushil K.   Hershey PA: Idea Group Pub., c2005.
    • Scientific American Medicine: https://www.deckerip.com/products/scientific-american-medicine
    • Medicine and business: a practitioner's guide.  Bucci, Ronald V.,  Cham ; New York : Springer, 2014.
    • Healthcare changes and the Affordable Care Act : a physician call to action  Powers, James S.,   Cham : Springer, [2014]
    • Oxford textbook of spirituality in healthcare.  Cobb, Mark. Puchalski, Christina M. Rumbold, Bruce D.   Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: data and statistics: http://www.cdc.gov/DataStatistics
  • GROUP Z. Geographical Locations References

  • Additional Resources
    • Encyclopedia of popular music. Editor: Colin Larkin. Oxford University Press. 2009.
    • The Humanities: Culture, Continuity, and Change. Henry M. Sayre.  : Prentice Hall; 1st edition, September 1, 2007.
    • The Harvard Dictionary of Music. Edited by Don Michael Randel. 4th Ed. The Belknap Press of Harvard Press. 2003.
    • Oxford Reference of Online resources:http://www.oxfordreference.com
    • Kjraelff, UB. [and others] Bayesian networks and influence diagrams [electronic resource]: a guide to construction and analysis.  2nd ed.   New York : Springer, c2013.
    • The Organization of Information (Library and Information Science Text Series). By Arlene G. Taylor. 3rd Ed. 2008. (ISBN13: 9781563089695)
    • Örtenblad, A. Management innovations for healthcare organizations : adopt, abandon or adapt?  New York : Routledge, 2016.
    • The law of tax-exempt healthcare organizations.  Hyatt, Thomas K.  Hopkins, Bruce R. Edition Fourth edition.   Hoboken, New Jersey : Wiley, 2013.
    • What top-performing healthcare organizations know: 7 proven steps for accelerating and achieving change.  Butler, Greg.  Caldwell, Chip.   Chicago, IL: Health Administration Press, c2009.
    • Foundations of Library and Information Science. 3rd ed. Richard Rubin. ALA Editions. 2010
    • Feather J. International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science, 2nd ed.  2013
    • Reference and Information Services in the 21st Century : An Introduction by Kay Ann Cassell, Uma Hiremath. 2006
    • Dictionary for Library and information science. Joan M. Reitz.  : ABC-CLIO, Incorporated. Published 2004.
    • Brown NW. Psycho-Educational Groups. : Accelerated Development ·263p. 
    • Encyclopedia of applied developmental science. Celia B. Fisher and Richard M. Lerner, eds. 2v. SAGE. 2005
    • African American National Biography. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. and Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham. Eds. 8v Oxford. 2008
    • Introduction to Health Care and Careers [Book] by Roxann DeLaet · Lippincott Williams and Wilkins · Paperback · 2012 
    • International resource book for libraries serving disadvantaged persons . International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions.   München : K.G. Saur, 2001.
    • Encyclopedia of community: From the village to the virtual world. Karen Christensen and David Levinson, eds. 4v SAGE 2003.