Used with drugs, chemicals, or biological agents in accepted dosage - or with physical agents or manufactured products in normal usage - when intended for diagnostic, therapeutic, prophylactic, or anesthetic purposes. It is used also for adverse effects or complications of diagnostic, therapeutic, prophylactic, anesthetic, surgical, or other procedures.
Used with chemicals, drugs, and endogenous substances to indicate substances or agents that have affinity for a receptor and intrinsic activity at that receptor. (From Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p.16)
Used with drugs and chemicals for substances that share the same parent molecule or have similar electronic structure but differ by the addition or substitution of other atoms or molecules. It is used when the specific chemical heading is not available and no appropriate group heading exists.
Used for the identification or quantitative determination of a substance or its constituents and metabolites; includes the analysis of air, water, or other environmental carrier. It excludes the chemical analysis of tissues, tumors, body fluids, organisms, and plants for which "chemistry" is used. The concept applies to both methodology and results. For analysis of substances in blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine the specific subheading designating the fluid is used.
Used for the presence or analysis of substances in the blood; also for examination of, or changes in, the blood in disease states. It excludes serodiagnosis, for which the subheading "diagnosis" is used, and serology, for which "immunology" is used.
Used with chemicals, biological, and non-biological substances for their composition, structure, characterization, and properties; also used for the chemical composition or content of organs, tissue, tumors, body fluids, organisms, and plants. Excludes chemical analysis and determination of substances for which "analysis" is used; excludes synthesis for which "chemical synthesis" is used; excludes isolation and purification of substances for which "isolation & purification" is used.
Used with disease headings to indicate those conditions existing at, and usually before, birth. It excludes morphologic abnormalities and birth injuries, for which "abnormalities" and "injuries" are used.
Used with diseases for all aspects of diagnosis, including examination, differential diagnosis and prognosis. Excludes diagnosis using imaging techniques (e.g. radiography, scintigraphy, and ultrasonography) for which "diagnostic imaging" is used.
Used for the visualization of an anatomical structure or for the diagnosis of disease. Commonly used imaging techniques include radiography, radionuclide imaging, thermography, tomography, and ultrasonography
Used with disease headings for the treatment of disease by the administration of drugs, chemicals, and antibiotics. For diet therapy and radiotherapy, use specific subheadings. Excludes immunotherapy for which "therapy" is used.
Used with organisms, except vertebrates, and with organs and tissues. It is also used with diseases for enzymes during the course of the disease, but excludes diagnostic enzyme tests, for which "diagnosis" is used.
Used with human and veterinary diseases for the distribution of disease, factors which cause disease, and the attributes of disease in defined populations; includes incidence, frequency, prevalence, endemic and epidemic outbreaks; also surveys and estimates of morbidity in geographic areas and in specified populations. Used also with geographical headings for the location of epidemiologic aspects of a disease. Excludes mortality for which "mortality" is used.
Used for mechanisms of heredity and the genetics of organisms, for the genetic basis of normal and pathologic states, and for the genetic aspects of endogenous chemicals. It includes biochemical and molecular influence on genetic material.
Used for immunologic studies of tissues, organs, microorganisms, fungi, viruses, and animals. It includes immunologic aspects of diseases but not immunologic procedures used for diagnostic, preventive, or therapeutic purposes, for which "diagnosis", "prevention & control", or "therapy" are used. The concept is also used for chemicals as antigens or haptens.
Used with bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, and helminths for the obtaining of pure strains or for the demonstration of the presence of or identification of organisms by DNA analyses, immunologic, or other methods, including culture techniques. It is used also with biological substances and chemicals for the isolation and purification of the constituents.
Used with organs, cells and subcellular fractions, organisms, and diseases for biochemical changes and metabolism. It is used also with drugs and chemicals for catabolic changes (breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones). For anabolic processes (conversion of small molecules into large), BIOSYNTHESIS is used. For enzymology, pharmacokinetics, and secretion use the specific subheadings.
Used with human and veterinary diseases for mortality statistics. For deaths resulting from various procedures statistically but for a death resulting in a specific case, use FATAL OUTCOME, not /mortality.
Used for the mechanism, dynamics and kinetics of exogenous chemical and drug absorption, biotransformation, distribution, release, transport, uptake and elimination as a function of dosage, extent and rate of metabolic processes.
Used with drugs and exogenously administered chemical substances for their effects on living tissues and organisms. It includes acceleration and inhibition of physiological and biochemical processes and other pharmacologic mechanisms of action.
Used with drugs, chemicals, and industrial materials for human or animal poisoning, acute or chronic, whether the poisoning is accidental, occupational, suicidal, by medication error, or by environmental exposure.
Used with disease headings for increasing human or animal resistance against disease (e.g., immunization), for control of transmission agents, for prevention and control of environmental hazards, or for prevention and control of social factors leading to disease. It includes preventive measures in individual cases.
Used with non-psychiatric diseases, techniques, and named groups for psychologic, psychiatric, psychosomatic, psychosocial, behavioral, and emotional aspects, and with psychiatric disease for psychologic aspects; used also with animal terms for animal behavior and psychology.
Used for effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on drugs and chemicals.
Used with facilities, personnel, and program headings for the development, testing, and application of standards of adequacy or acceptable performance and with chemicals and drugs for standards of identification, quality, and potency. It includes health or safety standards in industries and occupations.
Used with non-disease headings for the expression of numerical values which describe particular sets or groups of data. It excludes manpower distribution for which "manpower" is used and excludes supply or demand for which "supply & distribution" is used.
Used with diseases for therapeutic interventions except drug therapy, diet therapy, radiotherapy, and surgery, for which specific subheadings exist. The concept is also used for articles and books dealing with multiple therapies.
Used with drugs and chemicals for experimental human and animal studies of their ill effects. It includes studies to determine the margin of safety or the reactions accompanying administration at various dose levels. It is used also for exposure to environmental agents. Poisoning should be considered for life-threatening exposure to environmental agents.