Skip Navigation Bar
National Library of Medicine Technical BulletinNational Library of Medicine Technical Bulletin

Table of Contents: 2014 NOVEMBER–DECEMBER No. 401

Previous Next

MEDLINE Data Changes — 2015

Tybaert S. MEDLINE Data Changes — 2015. NLM Tech Bull. 2014 Nov-Dec;(401):e5.

2014 December 01 [posted]
2014 December 16 [Editor's note added]
Other pertinent articles:

MEDLINE/PubMed Year-End Processing Activities

2015 MeSH Now Available

MeSH Browser Now Updated More Frequently

dotMEDLINE Data Changes - 2015

What's New for 2015 MeSH

Cataloging News - 2015

Newly Maintained MEDLINE for 2015 MeSH Now Available in PubMed

[Editor's note: These changes were implemented in PubMed on December 15, 2014.]

This article collects the notable data changes made to MEDLINE during annual National Library of Medicine (NLM) maintenance known as Year-End Processing (YEP) for 2015.

MeSH Vocabulary Updated for 2015

The MeSH Browser currently points to the 2015 MeSH vocabulary with a link to the 2014 MeSH Vocabulary. Searchers should consult the Browser to find MeSH headings of interest and their relationships to other headings. The Browser contains MeSH Heading records that may include scope notes, annotations, entry terms, history notes, allowable qualifiers (subheadings), previous headings and other information. It also includes Subheading records and Supplementary Concept Records (SCRs) for substances and diseases that are not MeSH Headings.

The MeSH Section homepage provides a link under "All About MeSH" to the Introduction of 2015 MeSH and under "Obtaining MeSH" to download electronic versions.

The MeSH Tree Structures are also available online in both PDF and HTML formats with all indented terms showing.

For highlights about 2015 MeSH, see the article, What's New for 2015 MeSH.

The PubMed MeSH database and translation tables will be updated to reflect 2015 MeSH in mid-December when YEP activities are complete and the newly maintained MEDLINE data are available in PubMed.

Updated MeSH in MEDLINE Citations

MEDLINE records with updated MeSH will be in PubMed in mid-December 2014. See "Modifying a Saved Search Strategy" for details on revising My NCBI saved searches.

New MeSH Headings

310 new MeSH Headings were added to MeSH in 2015.

Typically, NLM does not retrospectively re-index MEDLINE citations with new MeSH Heading concepts. Therefore, searching PubMed for a new MeSH term tagged with [mh] or [majr] effectively limits retrieval to citations indexed after the term was introduced. PubMed Automatic Term Mapping (ATM) expands an untagged subject search to include both MeSH Terms and All Fields index terms and may retrieve relevant citations indexed before the introduction of a new MeSH term. Searchers may consult the MeSH Browser or the MeSH database to see the Previous Indexing terms most likely used for a particular concept before the new MeSH Heading was introduced.

Changes to MeSH Headings

This year 29 MeSH Headings were either changed or deleted and replaced with more up-to-date terminology. During YEP, NLM updates MeSH headings on MEDLINE citations.

Brand New Concepts

Examples of new MeSH headings of special interest to searchers are highlighted below by Category. You can browse all of the new 2015 concepts on the MeSH New Descriptors Web page.

Category A - Anatomy
Commissural Interneurons
Olfactory Cortex
Renshaw Cells
Category B – Organisms
Influenza A Virus, H10N8 Subtype
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus
Category C – Diseases
Adenocarcinoma in Situ
Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
Atypical Squamous Cells of the Cervix
Infant Death
Morphological and Microscopic Findings
Perinatal Death
Pregnancy, Angular
Pregnancy, Cornual
Pregnancy, Interstitial
Pregnancy, Ovarian
Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions of the Cervix
Transfusion Reaction
Vascular Remodeling
Category D – Chemicals and Drugs
Cytochrome P-450 CYP1B1
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2A6
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2B6
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C8
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inducers
Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 Inducers
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2B6 Inducers
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C8 Inducers
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 Inducers
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19 Inducers
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 Inducers
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1 Inducers
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inducers
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2B6 Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C8 Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19 Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1 Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors
Metabolic Side Effects of Drugs and Substances
Protein Aggregates
Protein Aggregation, Pathological
Category E - Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment
Controlled Before-After Studies
Historically Controlled Study
Interrupted Time Series Analysis
Protective Factors
Category F - Psychiatry and Psychology
Spatial Learning
Spatial Navigation
Spatial Processing
Psychology, Developmental
Social Skills
Category G - Phenomena and Processes
Absorption, Physiochemical
Absorption, Physiological
Absorption, Radiation
Activation, Metabolic
Diet, Paleolithic
Diet, Western
Drug Liberation
Gastrointestinal Absorption
Gastric Absorption
Hepatobiliary Elimination
Intestinal Elimination
Intramuscular Absorption
Lacrimal Elimination
Lacteal Elimination
Nasal Absorption
Ocular Absorption
Oral Mucosal Absorption
Peritoneal Absorption
Pulmonary Elimination
Rectal Absorption
Renal Elimination
Renal Reabsorption
Respiratory Tract Absorption
Salivary Elimination
Subcutaneous Absorption
Vaginal Absorption
Category J – Technology, Industry, Agriculture
Electronic Cigarettes
Category K - Humanities
Religious Missions
Category L - Information Science
Datasets as Topic
Category M - Named Groups

Changes of particular interest include:

  • The Publication Type In Vitro was deleted and replaced by the MeSH Heading In Vitro Techniques.
  • In 2015 MeSH the MeSH Tree structures were updated for Neuroanatomy Terms. 54 new terms were added with 281 Entry Terms (ET). 451 new Entry Terms were added to existing neuroanatomy terms.
    • As an example: in 2014 Olfactory Cortex was an ET to Olfactory Pathways but in 2015 Olfactory Cortex was created as a separate MeSH term.
  • The term Morphological and Microscopic Findings was created for the grouping of specific terms for morphologic findings, particularly the results of PAP smears reported according to the Bethesda System. It is not used for indexing.
  • Transfusion Reaction was created as a separate MeSH term in 2015. In 2014 it had been an ET to Blood Group Incompatibility. After Transfusion Reaction was removed as an ET, Blood Group Incompatibility was re-treed.
  • Two new infant death terms were added in 2015: Infant Death and Perinatal Death. It is important to note the difference between death and mortality terms. Mortality terms are used for statistical concepts and death terms are used for biological, physiological and psychological concepts. Please read the annotations for the overlap in the definition between these two, and between Fetal Death and Perinatal Death.
  • A number of new Absorption terms were added for concepts related to the pharmacokinetic processes of exogenous chemicals.
  • For 2015 MeSH the concept of missions was separated from the persons involved in missionary work.  Two new terms were created: Religious Missions and Missionaries. 

Do not confuse:

  • Protein Aggregates with Multiprotein Complexes.
  • Historically Controlled Study with Historical Article.

In addition to changes and deletions of MeSH terms on MEDLINE citations, YEP includes other adjustments to reflect 2015 MeSH vocabulary and to enhance search retrieval. These follow-on adjustments are largely the adding of more MeSH Headings or Supplementary Concept Record Names to citations to help searchers refine retrieval. In some cases, the changes clarify areas where a single concept existed before, but it is now represented by two or more specific concepts.

These types of changes, along with others documented on the Annual MEDLINE/PubMed Year-End Processing (YEP): Background Information Web page, suggest the importance of routinely using the PubMed Details feature when searching to see how terms are mapped with the new year's vocabulary and then checking the MeSH Browser or the MeSH database for clarification. Additional information is also available in the article, Skill Kit: The Effects of Year End Processing (YEP) on Saved Searches or RSS Feeds.

Entry Combination Revisions

This year during YEP, NLM will again retrospectively replace certain MeSH heading/subheading combinations, known as Entry Combinations, with the new precoordinated MeSH heading. If you get no retrieval for a MeSH Heading/subheading combination check the heading in the 2015 MeSH Browser to see if the Entry Combination information indicates a different term.

There are 38 new Entry Combinations for 2015.


Previous MeSH Heading/Subheading
(Entry Combination)
Replaced-by Heading for 2015
alpha-Glucosidases /antagonists & inhibitors Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors
Aromatic-L-Amino-Acid Decarboxylases /antagonists & inhibitors Aromatic Amino Acid Decarboxylase Inhibitors
beta-Lactamases /antagonists & inhibitors beta-Lactamase Inhibitors
Calcineurin /antagonists & inhibitors Calcineurin Inhibitors
Catechol O-Methyltransferase /antagonists & inhibitors Catechol O-Methyltransferase Inhibitors
Cephalosporinase /antagonists & inhibitors beta-Lactamase Inhibitors
Chloride Channels /agonists Chloride Channel Agonists
Cornea /injuries Corneal Injuries
Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 /antagonists & inhibitors Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2B6 /antagonists & inhibitors Cytochrome P-450 CYP2B6 Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19 /antagonists & inhibitors Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19 Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C8 /antagonists & inhibitors Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C8 Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 /antagonists & inhibitors Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 /antagonists & inhibitors Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1 /antagonists & inhibitors Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1 Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A /antagonists & inhibitors Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System /antagonists & inhibitors Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors
DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase /antagonists & inhibitors Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
Dopa Decarboxylase /antagonists & inhibitors Aromatic Amino Acid Decarboxylase Inhibitors
Estradiol /antagonists & inhibitors Estrogen Antagonists
Estrogens /antagonists & inhibitors Estrogen Antagonists
Factor Xa /antagonists & inhibitors Factor Xa Inhibitors
Factor Xa /deficiency Factor X Deficiency
Hernia, Diaphragmatic /congenital Hernias, Diaphragmatic, Congenital
Ornithine Decarboxylase /antagonists & inhibitors Ornithine Decarboxylase Inhibitors
Penicillinase /antagonists & inhibitors beta-Lactamase Inhibitors
Receptor, Bradykinin B1 /antagonists & inhibitors Bradykinin B1 Receptor Antagonists
Receptor, Bradykinin B2 /antagonists & inhibitors Bradykinin B2 Receptor Antagonists
Receptor, Endothelin A /antagonists & inhibitors Endothelin A Receptor Antagonists
Receptor, Endothelin B /antagonists & inhibitors Endothelin B Receptor Antagonists
Receptors, Bradykinin /antagonists & inhibitors Bradykinin Receptor Antagonists
Receptors, CCR5 /antagonists & inhibitors CCR5 Receptor Antagonists
Receptors, Dopamine D2 /antagonists & inhibitors Dopamine D2 Receptor Antagonists
Receptors, Endothelin /antagonists & inhibitors Endothelin Receptor Antagonists
Receptors, Islet Amyloid Polypeptide /agonists Amylin Receptor Agonists
Receptors, Opioid /antagonists & inhibitors Narcotic Antagonists
Receptors, Vasopressin /antagonists & inhibitors Antidiuretic Hormone Receptor Antagonists
Recurrence /prevention & control Secondary Prevention

Interview [PT]

In a new change in policy, MEDLINE citations that are cited with the Publication Type [PT] Interview will have both the Interviewee and Interviewer cited as authors. The first author will be the Interviewee and the second author will be the Interviewer. In the past we only cited the Interviewee as the author.

Author Affiliation

Effective with the implementation of the new PubMed system in mid-December and going forward, NLM will allow for multiple Author Affiliations for all Authors, Corporate Authors and Investigators, if the data are supplied by the publisher in their XML submissions for MEDLINE indexed journals.

MeSH Unique Identifier

Also effective with the implementation of the new PubMed system in mid-December and going forward NLM will be including the MeSH Unique Identifier for MeSH Headings, Subheadings, Name of Substance, Supplementary MeSH Name and Publication Types. These Unique Identifiers are displayed in the PubMed XML view only.

Structured Abstracts

In November 2014, NLM added 345 new labels to the list of structured abstract labels. This brings the total of vetted and mapped labels to 2,799. The new 2014 file can be found at:

Additional information is available in the article, Structured Abstracts in MEDLINE: Newly Identified and Mapped Labels Available.

New Indexing Policy

Effective for 2015 indexing forward, the more general MeSH heading Mice, Rats, or Cricetinae will no longer be added to a MEDLINE citation when one of their children terms is selected by the indexer. This change now aligns with the basic indexing policy of indexing to the most specific heading (and not also adding the parent term) and using the Tree structures for retrieval. The MeSH heading Animals will still be added, as usual, to support the Animals search limit.

LR (Modification Date) on In Process Citations

Starting around the last week in November 2014, NLM will tag In Process citations with an LR (Modification Date) when those citations have been edited to add Grant information or PMCIDs that have been identified by NCBI automatic machine detection. The purpose of this change for these particular updates to In Process citations is to facilitate the tracking of compliance for NIH Public Access. NLM already assigns an LR for these updates to completed citations (MEDLINE and PubMed-not-MEDLINE subsets) and to the "as supplied by publisher" citations (publisher subset).

PubMed Notes

The Dataset [PT] value will be used for 2015 indexing.

PubMed will display the following new display labels for linking between a Dataset citation and the original research citation.
Dataset described in: - this would appear on the citation for the original paper
Dataset use reported in: - this would appear on the citation for the dataset description
To retrieve the dataset-related citations use the following new search terms:

By Sara Tybaert
MEDLARS Management Section

NLM Technical Bulletin National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health