National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI) produces information resources on a range of topics covering chemical and biological macromolecules, DNA and RNA, genomes and their mappings, genetic sequencing and medicine, along with taxonomy of over 160,000 organisms.
The web site includes journals, databases, and information on clinical studies and current research related to biotechnology. Among these related resources is PubChem, a database created in 2004 with information on a variety of substances, as well as 2D and 3D models of the molecular structure of each. PubChem also serves as a gateway to the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB).
PubMed Central (PMC) is a free archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health’s National Library of Medicine (NIH/NLM). In keeping with NLM’s legislative mandate to collect and preserve the biomedical literature, PMC serves as a digital counterpart to NLM’s extensive print journal collection. Launched in February 2000, PMC was developed and is managed by NLM’s National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).
There are a variety of biotechnology topics to research on the PMC site, below are a selection of subjects.
- Dean JC. “Alcoholism: A conflict of models.” Journal of Religion and Health 1987 Dec;26(4):270-6. doi: 10.1007/BF01533878.
- Droste DW, Iliescu C, Vaillant M, Gantenbein M, De Bremaeker N, Lieunard C, Velez T, Meyer M, Guth T, Kuemmerle A, Gilson G, Chioti A. “A daily glass of red wine associated with lifestyle changes independently improves blood lipids in patients with carotid arteriosclerosis: results from a randomized controlled trial.” Nutrition Journal. 2013 Nov 15;12(1):147.
- Phipps WE. “Wets, drys, and damps.” Journal of Religion and Health 1987 Sep;26(3):240-4. doi: 10.1007/BF01533124.
- Welte JW, Barnes GM. Alcohol: The gateway to other drug use among secondary+school students. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 1985 Mar;14(6):487-98. doi: 10.1007/BF02139522.
- Jorge MS, Quinderé PH, Yasui S, Albuquerque RA. [The ritual of crack consumption: socio-anthropological aspects and impacts on the health of users]. Cien Saude Colet. 2013 Oct;18(10):2909-18. Portuguese
- Martin G, Macdonald S, Pakula B, Roth EA “A comparison of motivations for use among users of crack cocaine and cocaine powder in a sample of simultaneous cocaine and alcohol users.” Addict Behaviors. 2013 Oct 31. doi:pii: S0306-4603(13)00331-6. 10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.10.029. [Epub ahead of print]
- Perry AN, Westenbroek C, Becker JB “The Development of a Preference for Cocaine over Food Identifies Individual Rats with Addiction-Like Behaviors.” PLoS One. 2013 Nov 18;8(11):e79465. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079465.
- Buckner JD, Zvolensky MJ, Farris SG, Hogan J “Social Anxiety and Coping Motives for Cannabis Use: The Impact of Experiential Avoidance.” Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. 2013 Nov 25.
- Chesney T, Matsos L, Couturier J, Johnson N. “Cannabis withdrawal syndrome: An important diagnostic consideration in adolescents presenting with disordered eating.” International Journal of Eating Disorders. 2013 Nov 26. doi: 10.1002/eat.22229. [Epub ahead of print]
- Fuster D, Samet JH, Saitz R “Marijuana Use and Health in Primary Care.“ The Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2013 Nov 15.
- Gordon AJ, Conley JW, Gordon JM. “Medical consequences of marijuana use: a review of current literature.” Current Psychiatry Rep. 2013 Dec;15(12):419. doi: 10.1007/s11920-013-0419-7.
- Henry EA, Kaye JT, Bryan AD, Hutchison KE, Ito TA. “Cannabis Cue Reactivity and Craving Among Never, Infrequent and Heavy Cannabis Users.” Neuropsychopharmacology. 2013 Nov 22. doi: 10.1038/npp.2013.324.
- Lipperman-Kreda S, Lee JP, Morrison C, Freisthler B. “Availability of tobacco products associated with use of marijuana cigars (blunts).” Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2013 Nov 5. doi:pii: S0376-8716(13)00460-2. 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.10.022.
- Sirven JI. “Medical marijuana for epilepsy: Winds of change.” Epilepsy & Behavior. 2013 Dec;29(3):435-6. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2013.09.004.
- Mars SG, Bourgois P, Karandinos G, Montero F, Ciccarone D. "Every 'Never' I Ever Said Came True": Transitions from opioid pills to heroin injecting. The International Journal of Drug Policy. 2013 Oct 19. doi:pii: S0955-3959(13)00167-9. 10.1016/j.drugpo.2013.10.004.
- Sarnyai Z, Kovács GL. “Oxytocin in learning and addiction: From early discoveries to the present.” Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior. 2013 Nov 23. doi:pii: S0091-3057(13)00318-3. 10.1016/j.pbb.2013.11.019.
- Snodgrass BB “Combating the prescription drug crisis in TN: a nurse practitioner's view.” Tennessee Nurse. 2013 Fall;76(3):12.
- Tischler V. “Dr Junkie. The Doctor Addict in Bulgakov's Morphine: What are the Lessons for Contemporary Medical Practice?” Journal of Medical Humanities. 2013 Nov 13.
- Yan WS, Li YH, Xiao L, Zhu N, Bechara A, Sui N. “Working memory and affective decision-making in addiction: A neurocognitive comparison between heroin addicts, pathological gamblers and healthy controls.” Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013 Oct 5. doi:pii: S0376-8716(13)00406-7. 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.09.027.
- Baggio S, Studer J, Deline S, Mohler-Kuo M, Daeppen JB, Gmel G. “Factor structure of early smoking experiences and associations with smoking behavior: valence or sensitivity model?” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013 Nov 26;10(12):6305-18. doi: 10.3390/ijerph10126305.
- Dorota K, Korytkowski P, Makowiec-Dabrowska T “[Cigarette smoking among economically active population].” Med Pr. 2013;64(3):359-71. Polish.
- Morse D, Rosas IO. “Tobacco Smoke-Induced Lung Fibrosis and Emphysema.” Annual Review of Physiology. 2013 Nov 18
- Villanti AC, Cantrell J, Pearson JL, Vallone DM, Rath JM.“Perceptions and Perceived Impact of Graphic Cigarette Health Warning Labels on Smoking Behavior Among U.S. Young Adults.” Nicotine Tob Res. 2013 Nov 8.
Resources in HMD
The National Library of Medicine (NLM) maintains and makes available a vast print collection related to a wide range of topics on medicine and human health. The studies of both physical and mental health effects of addictive substances are part of the library’s historical and general collections. Here are selected items from NLM’s collection, each of which provides insight into medical and public health perspectives and policies about various substances at different times during 19th and 20th centuries in the United States.Resources in HMD.
- Campbell, J.A.. Note on the absence of beer in an asylum dietary. Carlisle, England: C. Thurnam & Sons, 1881.
- Grindal, Martin, M.D. Warm beer, a treatise: proving, from reason, authority and experience, that beer so qualify’d, is far more wholesome than that which is drank cold … ; published for the general good … London: Printed for T. Read, 1741.
- Hunt, Ezra M.. Alcohol; as a food and medicine. A paper from the Transactions of the International medical congress, at Philadelphia, September, 1876. New York, National temperance society and publication house, 1877.
- Opinions and facts from eminent physicians, chemists, and others in favor of ale and beer as light wholesome beverages. Boston: Rand, Avery & Co., 1872
- Coca: the sacred leaf of the Incas: the real history. Peru?: Editorial Illapa, 19--?
- Mariani, Angelo. Coca and its therapeutic application. New York, J. N. Janos, 1890-
- Martindale, William. Coca, cocaine and its salts; their history, medical and economic uses, and medicinal preparations. London, Lewis, 1886.
- Thudichum, John Louis William. On the coca of Peru and its immediate principles: their strengthening and healing powers. London: Baillière, Tindall, & Cox …, 1885.
- American Provers’ Union. Provings of cannabis indica. Philadelphia: King & Baird, printers, 1859.
- Clouston, Thomas Smith. Observations and experiments on the use of opium, bromide of potassium, and cannabis indica in insanity: especially in regard to the effects of the latter given separately. London: Printed by J.E. Adlard, 1871
- Ludlow, Fitz Hugh. The hasheesh eater: being passages from the life of a Pythagorean. New York: Harper & Bros., 1857.
- Blair, William. An opium-eater in America. New York?: s.n., 1842.
- Cobbe, William Rosser. Doctor Judas: a portrayal of the opium habit. Chicago: Griggs, 1895.
- Jones, John, M.D.. The mysteries of opium reveal’d. London: Printed for Richard Smith …, 1701.
- Leigh, John, M.D.. An experimental inquiry into the properties of opium, and its effects on living subjects …: being the disputation which gained the Harveian prize for the year 1785. Edinburgh: Printed for Charles Elliot, and G. G. J. & J. Robinson, London, 1786.
- A dissertation on the use and abuse of tobacco : in relation to smoaking, chewing, and taking of snuff; humbly inscrib’d to the ladies and gentlemen, who use it … London: Printed for J. Roberts, 1720.
- Clarke, Adam LL.D.. A dissertation on the use and abuse of tobacco: wherein the advantages and disadvantages attending the consumption of that entertaining weed are particularly considered: humbly addressed to all tobacco consumers, but especially to those among religious people. New York: Printed by C.S. Van Winkle …, 1819.
- Harris, Elisha. Tobacco: the effects of its use as a luxury on the physical and moral nature of man: a prize essay. New York: Harned, 1853.
- Thorius, Raphael. Tobacco: a poem; in two books. Translated by Henry Player and Stephan James Tabor. London: Printed by W. H. sold by J. Noon, and T. Sharpey: and S. Popping, 1716.