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History of Medicine

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Banner containing six icons that link to the individual pages of the website.  From left to right: 1. Image of three embryos, that links to the Embryology page.  2. Image of conjoined twins from a 15th century book, that links to the Age of Superstition page. 3. Image of Millie-Christine McCoy, that links to the Marvels on Exhibit page. 4. Image of Clara and Alta Rodriguez, that links to the Separation Surgeries page.  5. Image of a fine engraving of two sets of conjoined twins, that links to the Gallery of Images page.  6. Image of a title page, that links to the bibliography page.   Below the banner, to the left of the links to each page is a large eighteenth century woodcut illustration of female twins joined at the back. From 'Monsters' to Modern Medical Miracles: selected moments in the history of conjoined twins from medieval to modern times. Embryology and Classification of Conjoined Twins Age of Superstition Marvels on Exhibit Separation Surgeries Gallery of Images Bibliography


Aristotle, pseud. Aristotle's Compleat Master Piece. 29th ed. London: Printed and sold by the booksellers, 1772.

Baldwin, Maitland and Anatole Dekaban. "The surgical separation of Siamese twins conjoined by the heads (cephalopagus frontalis) followed by normal development," Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 21(1958):195-202.

Besse, H. Diploteratology, or, A History of Some of the Most Wonderful Human Beings That Have Ever Lived in Double Form. Delaware: Gazette, 1874.

Birnbaum, Richard. A Clinical Manual of the Malformations and Congenital Diseases of the Foetus. London: J. & A. Churchill, 1912.

Carson, Ben. Gifted Hands. Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Pub. Association, 1990.

Chapot-Prévost, Edouard. Chirurgie des Tératopages. Paris: Institut international de bibliographie scientifique, 1901.

Dreger, Alice Domurat. One of Us: Conjoined Twins and the Future of Normal. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2004.

Fisher, George Jackson. Diploteratology. Albany: Van Benthuysen, 1866.

Fisher, George Jackson. "Teratology," A Reference Handbook of the Medical Sciences. New York: William Wood, 1889, vol. 7.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Isidore. Histoire Générale et Particulière des Anomalies de l'Organisation chez l'Homme et les Animaux. Paris: Baillière, 1832-1836.

Gould, George M. and Walter L. Pyle. Anomalies and Curiosities of Medicine. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1897.

Hirst, Barton Cooke. Human Monstrosities. Philadelphia: Lea, 1891-1893.

Human Malformations and Related Anomalies. Edited by Roger E. Stevenson and Judith G. Hall. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Kiesewetter, William B. "Surgery on conjoined (Siamese) twins," Surgery, 59(1966):860-871.

Koop, C. Everett. "The successful separation of pygopagous twins," Surgery, 49(1961):271-277.

Liceti, Fortunio. De Monstris. Ed. Novissimo. Amstelodami: Sumptibus Andreae Frisii, 1665.

Liceti, Fortunio. De Monstrorum Caussis, Natura, et Differentiis Libri Duo. 2. ed. Patavii: Apud Paulum Frambottum, 1634.

Locher, Jacob. Carmen Heroicum De Partu Monstrifero. Ingolstadt: Johann Kachelofen, after 26 Nov. 1499.

Martell, Joanne. Millie-Christine: Fearfully and Wonderfully Made. Winston-Salem, NC: John F. Blair, 2000.

McMurrich, J. Playfair. The Development of the Human Body: a Manual of Human Embryology. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son & Co. 1902.

Millie-Christine. History and Medical Description of the Two-Headed Girl. Buffalo: Warren, Johnson, 1869.

O'Rahilly, Ronan and Fabiola Müller. Human Embryology & Teratology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2001.

Otto, Adolph Wilhelm. Monstrorum Sexentorum Descriptio Anatomica. Vratislaviae: F. Girt, 1841.

Paré, Ambroise. Deux Livres de Chirurgie. Paris: André Wechel, 1573.

Paré, Ambroise. Les Oeuvres de M. Ambroise Paré. Paris: Gabriel Buon, 1575.

Paré, Ambroise. Les Oeuvres d'Ambroise Paré. Paris: Gabriel Buon, 1585.

Paré, Ambroise. On Monsters and Marvels. Translated with an introduction and notes by Janis L. Pallister. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.

Quigley, Christine. Conjoined Twins: an Historical, Biological, and Ethical Issues Encyclopedia. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co., 2003.

Sadler, T.W. Langman's Medical Embryology. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins, 2006.

Schwalbe, Ernst. Die Morphologie der Missbildungen des Menschen und der Tiere. Jena: Fischer, 1906.

"Siamese twins at the College of Physicians," Philadelphia Medical Times, Thursday, February 19, 1874.

Voris, Harold C., Wayne B. Slaughter, Joseph R. Christian, and Edward R. Cayia. "Successful separation of craniopagus twins," Journal of Neurosurgery, 14(1957):548-560.

Consulted manuscript collections:

C. Everett Koop papers, 1933-2005 (bulk 1980-1998)

Consulted audiovisual materials:

Conjoined twins. Charlotte, N.C.: Gentle Pulse Video, 1984.

Issledovaniia na nerazdelivshikhsiia bliznetsakh. [Research on inseparable twins]. Moscow: Akademiia meditsinskikh nauk SSSR, 1957.

Omphalopagus twins: complete appraisal for successful separation. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Medical Sciences Teaching Laboratories, 1982.

Separation of conjoined twins. Woodbury, CT: Davis & Geck Surgical Video Library, 1993.

Siamese twins. Boston: WGBH Educational Foundation, 1995.

Strategies in the separation of omphalopagus conjoined twins. California: Southern California Permanente Medical Group, 1990.

Surgical separation of ischiopagus tripus conjoined twins. Dallas: University of Texas Health Science Center at Dallas Dept. of Biomedical Communications, 1979.

Last Reviewed: March 11, 2024