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700 BCE

Homer writes of Apollo, the bringer and reliever of plagues in The Iliad

600 BCE

The rise of Greek science and philosophy: Thales begins inquiries about nature and physics

580 BCE

Pythagoras born at Samos; later founds a scientific and philosophical cult

480 BCE

Empedocles born; noted philosopher and physician

460 BCE

The most noted "Hippocrates" born; the Hippocratic Corpus begins its formation

384 BCE

Aristotle born; noted philosopher and scientist

334–325 BCE

Alexander the Great conquers Egypt, the Middle East and Western India, bringing Greek culture and learning

330 BCE–100 CE

Alexandria serves as a center for Greek scholarship, including medicine

146 BCE

Greece becomes a Roman protectorate

50–70 CE

Dioscorides writes Περι υλης ιατρικης, known in Latin as De materia medica

129 CE

Galen born; noted physician

150 CE

Artemidorus writes Oneirocritica

476 CE

As the Western Roman Empire falls, Western physicians begin to lose contact with Greek scholars and texts in the East

632–1200 CE

Islam grows, eventually taking over Egypt and much of the Hellenized Middle East; Arab medical scholars take an intense interest in the Greek physicians; texts are copied in Greek and translated into Arabic

1200–1350 CE

News from Crusaders and texts found during their raids renew Western scholars’ interest in Greek medicine; the Greek language is mostly unknown, however

1450–1598 CE

With the fall of Constantinople in 1453, many Byzantine scholars emigrate to Italy, bringing Greek texts and teaching the language; Greek medical texts are printed with vigor and studied dogmatically

1540–1800 CE

Western scholars begin to question the data in Greek medical texts, but take up their methods of scientific enquiry and experimentation, developing modern Western medicine

1800 CE

Greek medical texts become the focus of modern Classical scholars and historians of medicine