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Brown ArrowComparative Effectiveness Research (CER)

Comparative effectiveness research is the conduct and synthesis of systematic research comparing different interventions and strategies to prevent, diagnose, treat and monitor health conditions. The purpose of this research is to inform patients, providers, and decision-makers, responding to their expressed needs, about which interventions are most effective for which patients under specific circumstances. To provide this information, comparative effectiveness research must assess a comprehensive array of health-related outcomes for diverse patient populations…[Internet.] Federal Coordinating Council for Comparative Effectiveness Research, definition; [cited 28 July 2010].

Access specialized searches for published research—PubMed, and research still in progress, HSRProj, and ClinicalTrials.gov—to help inform investigations of comparative effectiveness.

Additional information related to CER may be found in the Evidence-Based Practice/Health Technology Assessment Main Topic.

News: Comparative Effectiveness Research

Data, Tools, and Statistics

CER-related data, tools, and statistics

  • Health Indicators Warehouse (HIW) - (National Center for Health Statistics, CDC (NCHS))  Details

    The Health Indicators Warehouse served as the data hub for the HHS Community Health Data Initiative by providing a single source for national, state, and community health indicators. Site will no longer be maintained after 6/30/16 and will be discontinued on 4/17/17.

  • CER Collaborative Details

    This collaboration from Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy, the International Society for Pharmaeconomics and Outcomes Research, and the National Pharmaceutical Council provides online tools to assist in usage of new research. Registration is required to use the tools.

  • Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) - (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS))  Details

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) is a branch of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. CMS is the federal agency which administers Medicare, Medicaid, and the Children's Health Insurance Program. Provides information for health professionals, regional governments, and consumers.

  • ClinicalTrials.gov - (National Institutes of Health (NIH))  Details

    Registry of federally and privately supported clinical trials conducted in the United States and around the world.

  • Drug Approvals and Databases - (Food and Drug Administration (FDA))  Details

    Links to various FDA databases, i.e., Adverse Event Reporting post-marketing safety surveillance program, Orange Book, Clinical Investigator Inspection List, Bioresearch Monitoring Information System, Dissolution Methods, etc.

  • HSRProj - (National Library of Medicine, National Information Center on Health Services Research and Health Care Technology)  Details

    Database of ongoing health services research projects. Search for studies relating to access, cost, and quality of health care, including patient outcomes, health services research methods, community needs assessments, etc.

  • HSRR (Health Services and Sciences Research Resources) - (National Library of Medicine, National Information Center on Health Services Research and Health Care Technology)  Details

    HSRR is a searchable database of information about research datasets, instruments/indices and software employed in Health Services Research, the Behavioral and Social Sciences and Public Health. The database includes brief descriptions of research resources and links to PubMed.

  • Health System Measurement Project - (Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) U.S.)  Details

    - This web tool enables the viewing of data on a given topical area from multiple sources, comparing trends across measures and national trends with those at the state and regional level. For example, an individual could use the Measurement Project to monitor the percentage of people who have a specific source of ongoing medical care or track avoidable hospitalizations for adults and children by region or ethnic group.

  • NIH RePORTER (RePORT Expenditures & Results) - (National Institutes of Health (NIH))  Details

    The RePORT (Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools) website provides access to a variety of reporting tools, reports, data, and analyses of NIH research activities. One of the tools available on the RePORT site is the RePORTER (RePORT Expenditures and Results) module. RePORTER is an electronic tool that allows users to search a repository of NIH-funded research projects and access publications and patents resulting from NIH funding.

  • NLM Resources for Informing Comparative Effectiveness - (National Library of Medicine, National Information Center on Health Services Research and Health Care Technology)  Details

    Provides specialized searches of published research - PubMed - and research still in progress - HSRProj, and ClinicalTrials.gov - to help inform investigations of comparative effectiveness.

  • Prevention, Wellness, & Comparing Providers: Healthcare.Gov - (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) U.S., Hospital Quality Alliance US)  Details

    This tool provides a listing of U.S. hospitals, including hospital demographics (location, hospital type) and 44 quality measures. Hospital Compare includes information on some Department of Veterans Affairs medical centers.

  • PubMed Health - (National Library of Medicine (NLM) U.S.)  Details

    - PubMed Health is a consumer health Web site produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), a division of the National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). PubMed Health provides up-to-date information on diseases, conditions, injuries, drugs, supplements, treatment options, and healthy living, with a special focus on comparative effectiveness research, in particular that research which evaluates the available evidence of the benefits and harms of different treatment options for different groups of people.

  • VA HSR&D Emerging Evidence - (Health Services Research and Development Service, Veterans Administration (HSR&D))  Details

    Emerging Evidence periodically presents results on a single subject gleaned from the Final Reports of completed VA HSR&D studies. Access various results.

  • Why Not the Best? Comparative Health Care Performance Data - (Commonwealth Fund)  Details

    Free resource for health care professionals interested in tracking performance on various measures of health care quality. It enables organizations to compare their performance against that of peer organizations, against a range of benchmarks, and over time. Case studies and improvement tools spotlight successful improvement strategies of the nation's top performers.

Grants, Funding, and Fellowships

  • Federal Training Programs in Comparative Effectiveness Research - (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ))  Details

    Appendix B of a 2010 White Paper, Establishing an AHRQ Learning Collaborative, lists CER Federal Training Program. As background on the white paper, at the 2010 National Research Service Award (NRSA) meeting, directors of T32 training programs funded by AHRQ discussed the importance of sharing knowledge and working more closely together. To gain a better understanding of the unique needs, preferences, and challenges of AHRQ training programs with respect to achieving these goals, a brief initial survey involving 10 of the 18 training programs was conducted. To explore these themes in more detail, 15 semi-structured interviews were conducted (five each with program directors and pre- and postdoctoral trainees). Additionally, interviews were conducted with individuals with expertise in establishing and working with collaboratives. These experts represented: AcademyHealth, AHRQ, The Institute for Healthcare Improvement, the NEWMEDS Project, and the PCMH/MU (Patient-Centered Medical Home/Meaningful Use) Collaborative. Applying a conceptual framework developed from a literature review of collective learning, themes were identified and consolidated as they emerged.

  • NIH RePORTER (RePORT Expenditures & Results) - (National Institutes of Health (NIH))  Details

    The RePORT (Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools) website provides access to a variety of reporting tools, reports, data, and analyses of NIH research activities. One of the tools available on the RePORT site is the RePORTER (RePORT Expenditures and Results) module. RePORTER is an electronic tool that allows users to search a repository of NIH-funded research projects and access publications and patents resulting from NIH funding.

  • PCORI Funding Awards - (Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) US)  Details

    Available in a map or pdf format, the website provides a listing of currently open PCORI funding awards.

Guidelines, Journals, Other (Publications/Videos)

  • Clinical Practice Guidelines We Can Trust (2011) - (National Academy of Medicine (NAM))  Details

    Eight standards are promoted in this report, including recommendations for establishing transparency in the practice, managing conflict of interest, external review, and group composition development.

  • Initial National Priorities for Comparative Effectiveness Research (2009) - (National Academy of Medicine (NAM))  Details

    Congress, in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009, tasked the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to recommend national priorities for research questions to be addressed by CER and supported by ARRA funds. These are the 100 priority topics for comparative effectiveness research. The list provides a starting point for what should be a sustained effort to conduct comparative effectiveness research. As this research initiative progresses, the priorities will evolve as well.

  • Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research (Future Medicine) - (Future Medicine, Ltd UK)  Details

    Articles published in Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research cover key areas such as: studies of effectiveness or comparative effectiveness yielding new findings relating to diagnostics, therapeutics, surgical procedures, or other healthcare services or options; systematic reviews of available evidence relating to the pros and cons of healthcare options for specific patient groups including comparative safety; perspectives and debate relating to the performance of comparative effectiveness studies and best practice issues; commentary on both patient-relevant outcomes and economic implications; direct 'head-to-head' comparisons of available diagnostic and therapeutic options - evaluating clinical alternatives with current standard of care; clinical trial commentaries - evaluating and interpreting the findings of recently completed CER trials as well as presenting the design and rationale of newly commenced studies; and pharmacoeconomic studies, health economics and outcomes research. Paid subscription required for access.

  • PCORI: Annual Reports, Financials, and GAO Reports - (Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) US)  Details

    The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) was authorized by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) of 2010 to conduct research to provide the best available evidence to help patients and those who care for them make better-informed health care decisions.

  • AHRQ Impact Case Studies - (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ))  Details

    Link to comparative effectiveness portfolios designed to provide health care decisionmakers--including patients, clinicians, purchasers, and policymakers-with up-to-date, evidence-based information about their treatment options to make informed health care decisions.

  • Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Process for Awarding Recovery Act Funds and Disseminating Results (2012) images/pdf.gif icon - (U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) US)  Details

    According to AHRQ officials, the agency plans to disseminate the results of Recovery Act-funded CER using a range of existing mechanisms. These mechanisms include written products, training programs, social media tools, and AHRQ's website. AHRQ is also developing additional strategies to disseminate CER results. AHRQ awarded four contracts using Recovery Act funds totaling approximately $42.3 million to promote innovative approaches for disseminating CER results. A variety of efforts are conducted under these contracts, including efforts to educate clinicians and develop regional dissemination offices.

  • CER Newsfeed - (National Pharmaceutical Council (NPC) US)  Details

    Produced by the National Pharmaceutical Council, CER Newsfeed provides daily updates and information on CER.

  • Center on Health Care Effectiveness - (Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.)  Details

    Resource for policymakers, the public, and other stakeholders, offering broad-based expertise to provide objective evidence to inform today's difficult health care decisions. Link to reports, publications, webinars.

  • Comparative Effectiveness Research and Payers - (National Pharmaceutical Council (NPC) US)  Details

    During the June 2011 Drug Information Association Annual Meeting, the National Pharmaceutical Council caught up with several health care experts to ask their thoughts on how payers are using comparative effectiveness research (CER). Visitors can view video interviews from this link.

  • Evidence-based Synthesis Program - (Health Services Research and Development Service, Veterans Administration (HSR&D))  Details

    The Evidence-based Synthesis Program (ESP) was established to provide timely and accurate syntheses of targeted health care topics of particular importance to VA managers and policy makers and to disseminate these reports broadly throughout VA. Access published reports as well as reports in progress.

  • GRACE: Good Research for Comparative Effectiveness - (National Pharmaceutical Council (NPC) US)  Details

    The GRACE Principles provide high-level guidance to decision-makers to help them evaluate the quality of observational studies comparing the effectiveness of various medical products and services. The GRACE initiative developed a core set of good practice principles to address the design, conduct, analysis, and reporting of observational studies of comparative effectiveness. In addition, a checklist to assess observational CER quality and usefulness for decision-making is under development.

  • ISPOR Good Outcomes Research Practices & Issues Index - (International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) US)  Details

    Consensus documents on key outcomes research methods. ISPOR's role as a scientific educational organization is to assist in the development and dissemination of good practices in health outcomes research

  • Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research (open access) - (Dove Medical Press Ltd. UK)  Details

    This is an international, peer-reviewed open access journal focusing on comparative effectiveness of health care including preventative health care strategies, diagnostic strategies, diagnostic technology, medical devices, drugs, medical technology, health systems and organization.

  • Knowing What Works in Health Care: A Roadmap for the Nation - (National Academy of Medicine (NAM))  Details

    Looks at the three fundamental health care issues in the United States--setting priorities for evidence assessment, assessing evidence (systematic review), and developing evidence-based clinical practice guidelines--and how each of these contributes to the end goal of effective, practical health care systems. Also links to podcast.

  • Methods Guide for Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ))  Details

    Effectiveness and Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, systematic reviews of existing research on the effectiveness, comparative effectiveness, and comparative harms of different health care interventions, are intended to provide relevant evidence to inform real-world health care decisions for patients, providers, and policymakers. In an effort to improve the transparency, consistency, and scientific rigor of the work of the Effective Health Care (EHC) Program, through a collaborative effort, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), the Scientific Resource Center, and the Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPCs) have developed a Methods Guide for Comparative Effectiveness Reviews. We intend that these documents will serve as a resource for our EPCs as well as for other investigators interested in conducting Comparative Effectiveness Reviews.

  • Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives: By Organization - (National Library of Medicine (NLM) U.S.)  Details

    This site provides acces to a chart listing the major biomedical research reporting guidelines that provide advice for reporting research methods and findings. The chart also includes editorial style guides for writing research reports or other publications.

  • VA HSR&D Emerging Evidence - (Health Services Research and Development Service, Veterans Administration (HSR&D))  Details

    Emerging Evidence periodically presents results on a single subject gleaned from the Final Reports of completed VA HSR&D studies. Access various results.

  • Video: National Health Council-PCORI (February 2012) Details

    In February 2012, the National Health Council held its annual Voluntary Health Leadership Conference in San Diego, California. Joe Selby, MD, MPH, Executive Director of the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute, was interviewed by the NHC about how better information gleaned through comparative effectiveness research can lead to better health decisions.

Key Organizations/Programs

  • Comparative Effectiveness Research Online Training Center - (Ohio State University, College of Public Health US)  Details

    These resources were developed with funding from the National Institutes of Health to provide training in Comparative Effectiveness Research methodology and application. While the IOM Priority Area for this program was Birth Outcomes, the modules were created to addresses CER methods and application more generally. There are 16 modules.

  • Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPCs) - (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ))  Details

    Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPCs) are top-ranking institutions where research reviews for the AHRQ Effective Health Care Program are made. EPCs are housed at 15 of the nation's top medical schools, universities, or medical centers. Access research reviews, original research reports, and summary guides.

  • National Partnership for Action to End Health Disparities (NPA) - (Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) U.S.)  Details

    The mission of the National Partnership for Action is to mobilize and connect individuals and organizations across the country to create a Nation free of health disparities, with quality health outcomes for all people. The campaign, launched by the Office of Minority Health (OMH) focuses on health status and health outcomes among racial and ethnic minority populations.

  • American Institutes of Research (AIR) Details

    In August 2010, AHRQ awarded AIR's Health Care Section $10 million to manage the Agency's Citizens Forum on Effective Health Care. This project will serve as one of AHRQ's primary mechanisms for obtaining public input on comparative effectiveness research, and will oversee the agency's existing Effective Health Care Stakeholder Group.

  • CDC's Prevention Research Centers - (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC))  Details

    The Prevention Research Centers work as an interdependent network of community, academic, and public health partners to conduct prevention research and promote the wide use of practices proven to promote good health.

  • Center for Medical Technology Policy (CMTP) Details

    Private, non-profit organization that provides a neutral forum in which patients, clinicians, payers, manufacturers and researchers can work together to design and implement prospective, real world studies to inform health care decisions.

  • Center on Health Care Effectiveness - (Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.)  Details

    Resource for policymakers, the public, and other stakeholders, offering broad-based expertise to provide objective evidence to inform today's difficult health care decisions. Link to reports, publications, webinars.

  • Centers for Comparative and Health Systems Effectiveness - (University of Washington)  Details

    Developed to facilitate multidisciplinary, high impact comparative and systems effectiveness research and implementation. The CHASE Alliance consists of UW researchers and community partners interested in comparative effectiveness research, health disparities, health system evaluation, technology assessment, patient-centered outcomes, economic evaluation, and dissemination and translation.

  • Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) - (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS))  Details

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) is a branch of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. CMS is the federal agency which administers Medicare, Medicaid, and the Children's Health Insurance Program. Provides information for health professionals, regional governments, and consumers.

  • Commonwealth Fund - (Commonwealth Fund)  Details

    Established in 1918 with the broad charge to enhance the common good, the mission of The Commonwealth Fund is to promote a high performing health care system that achieves better access, improved quality, and greater efficiency, particularly for society's most vulnerable, including low-income people, the uninsured, minority Americans, young children, and elderly adults. This site provides access to data, surveys and numerous publications.

  • Comparative Effectiveness Resource Center - (ECRI Institute US)  Details

    Educational site with access to resources ranging from national policy conference recordings to perspectives from leading experts, as well as links to position statements by stakeholder groups.

  • Effective Healthcare Program - (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ))  Details

    Funds individual researchers, research centers, and academic organizations to work together with AHRQ to produce effectiveness and comparative effectiveness research for clinicians, consumers, and policymakers.

  • Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation Details

    An independent philanthropy focusing on the major health care issues, including comparative effectiveness research, facing the nation. The Foundation is an independent voice and source of facts analysis for policymakers, the media, the health care community, and the general public.

  • Partnership to Improve Patient Care Details

    Group of healthcare organization representing patients, physicians and other health care providers, researchers and innovators, and other groups that have come together to promote comparative effectiveness research that supports patient access and informed health care decision-making and fosters continued medical progress.

  • Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) - (U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) US)  Details

    - The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) is an independent organization created to help people make informed health care decisions and improve health care delivery. PCORI will commission research that is guided by patients, caregivers and the broader health care community and will produce high integrity, evidence-based information. In March 2012 PCORI revised their definition.

Legislation and Policy

  • H.R. 2502 - Comparative Effectiveness Research Act of 2009 - (Library of Congress)  Details

    On May 19, 2009, Rep. Kurt Schrader (D-OH), joined by 11 co-sponsors, introduced H.R. 2502, "The Comparative Effectiveness Research Act of 2009." This legislation would establish a private, non-profit organization, the Health Care Comparative Effectiveness Research Institute, to conduct research evaluating and comparing the implications and outcomes of two or more health care therapies in treating a particular medical condition.

  • Public Law 111-152, Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 Details

    Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 - Title I: Coverage, Medicare, Medicaid, and Revenues - Subtitle A: Coverage - (Sec. 1001) Amends Internal Revenue Code provisions added by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) to revise the formula for calculating the refundable tax credit for premium assistance for coverage under a qualified health plan by establishing a sliding scale from the initial to the final premium percentage for individuals and families with household incomes up to 400% of the federal poverty line. Requires adjustments, after 2014 and after 2018, of the initial and final premium percentages to reflect the excess (if any) of the rate of premium growth over the rate of growth of income and the consumer price index.

  • Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Process for Awarding Recovery Act Funds and Disseminating Results (2012) images/pdf.gif icon - (U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) US)  Details

    According to AHRQ officials, the agency plans to disseminate the results of Recovery Act-funded CER using a range of existing mechanisms. These mechanisms include written products, training programs, social media tools, and AHRQ's website. AHRQ is also developing additional strategies to disseminate CER results. AHRQ awarded four contracts using Recovery Act funds totaling approximately $42.3 million to promote innovative approaches for disseminating CER results. A variety of efforts are conducted under these contracts, including efforts to educate clinicians and develop regional dissemination offices.

Meetings/Conferences/Webinars

Upcoming Meetings and Conferences

  • PCORI: Events - (Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) US)  Details

    A list of upcoming and past meetings and events

Webcasts

  • Board of Governors Meeting - (Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) US)  Details

    Tuesday, September 27, 2016 - 12:00 pm to 01:30 pm EDT. The meeting is available for public viewing; no public comment period is included.

Past Meetings/Conferences' Archives and Reports

  • Current Challenges In Comparative Effectiveness Research - (Health Affairs)  Details

    Videos from the briefing held October 11, 2012 in Washington, D.C. are available. Included are discussion on "Legal Issues On Promotion And Communication Of Comparative Effectiveness Research", "Patients' Concerns And Patient Centeredness", "The Use Of Research By Payers And Clinicians", and "Moving Comparative Effectiveness Research Forward".

  • Latino Roundtable - (Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) US)  Details

    The agenda and slides for this roundtable, which took place on July 23rd, 2013, and which discussed the experiences of Latino patients, healthcare professionals, and the organizations in relation to patient-centered research, is available.

  • Methodological Challenges in Comparative Effectiveness Research - (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), National Institutes of Health (NIH))  Details

    Sponsored by AHRQ and NIH, the conference made use of case studies that pose difficult questions about what kinds of research, methods and analyses should be used to address limitations in current evidence for interventions and tests being examined by decision-making bodies.

  • Stakeholder Symposium - (AcademyHealth)  Details

    Content from the the past meetings, centering on important topics that are generalizable to CER efforts and data consortia.