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Brown ArrowCommunity Benefit / Community Health Needs Assessment

Not-for-profit hospitals, in order to maintain their tax-exempt, or "charitable," status, under section 501(c)(3) of Federal Internal Revenue Code, have long been required to provide benefit to the community that they serve. Recent changes in legislation now require that such hospitals explicitly and publicly demonstrate community benefit by conducting a community health needs assessment (CHNA) and adopting an implementation strategy to meet the identified community health needs. (IRS).

Section 9007 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Public Law 111-148 (the "Affordable Care Act"), created section 501(r) of the Code adding new requirements effective beginning with the first tax year on or after March 23, 2012, that 501(c)(3) hospitals must conduct a CHNA at least once every three years in order to assess community need and annually file information (by means of Schedule H (Form 990)) regarding progress toward addressing identified needs. (IRS). This can involve partnerships with other clinical, public health, and population health focused organizations. Section 9007 furthermore established tax penalties for hospitals that do not comply, as well as reporting requirements regarding national compliance on the IRS. (IRS).
The IRS has provided initial guidance concerning the CHNA requirement (see legislative and tax information); this guidance has been further augmented by individual states to accommodate their state-specific requirements for tax-exempt status (Hilltop). A growing set of tools, examples, and analyses are provided below to assist both those tasked with preparing a CHNA, as well as those interested in reviewing national progress.

Search Queries Using NLM Resources: Community Benefit

News : Community Benefit / Community Health Needs Assessment

Data, Tools, Statistics

For a broad set of quality sources of data and statistics related to health care, health services and health status, readers are directed to the following resource and topic pages on HSRInfo Central and

  • A Resource Center for Implementing CDC's 6|18 Initiative - (Center for Health Care Strategies (CHCS) USA)  Details

    Resource Center is designed to advance implementation of CDC's 6|18 Initiative by Medicaid, state and local health departments, and other payers and purchasers. It offers practical resources and state examples to guide stakeholders in spending smarter for healthier populations.

  • AHRQ Health Care Innovations Exchange - (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS)  Details

    The Innovations Exchange offers health professionals and researchers the opportunity to share, learn about, and ultimately adopt evidence-based innovations and tools suitable for a range of health care settings and populations.

  • CDC Community Health Improvement Navigator - (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), HHS)  Details

    This website is aimed at those who participate in CHI work within hospitals and health systems, public health agencies, and other community organizations. It provides vetted tools and resources for community health improvement.

  • Community Benefit (CHA) - (Catholic Health Association of the United States (CHAUSA) USA)  Details

    This website features a selection of tools, reports and forms to assist organizations in fulfilling the community benefit requirements. News feeds alert users to new data, relevant to the area.

  • Community Benefit Insight - (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF))  Details

    A comprehensive, searchable tool for community benefit data, enabling local organizations to assess how hospital resources are allocated. The tool includes community benefit expenditures as reported by tax-exempt hospitals from all fifty states and the District of Columbia.

  • Community Benefit Resource Index - (Catholic Health Association of the United States (CHAUSA) USA)  Details

    Resources to assist hospitals in planning and implementing community benefit programs and services, including community health needs assessment, implementation strategies, and evaluation.

  • Community Health Assessment & Health Improvement Planning - (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), HHS)  Details

    This site helps state, tribal, local, and territorial (STLT) health departments as they develop community health assessments and health improvement plans, whether for accreditation preparation, nonprofit hospital collaboration, or other reasons.

  • Community Health Assessment Clearinghouse - (New York State Department of Health)  Details

    Intended as a resource for community health planners, practitioners, and policy developers both in counties and hospitals in New York State but relevant to other states and settings, this website contains health data, local health planning, and examples of Community Health Assessments and Hospital Community Service Plans (CHNAs).

  • Community Health Assessment Toolkit - (Association for Community Health Improvement (ACHI))  Details

    The Association for Community Health Improvement's Community Health Assessment Toolkit offers a nine-step pathway for conducting a CHA and developing implementation strategies. It is designed to assist in planning, leading and using community health needs assessments to understand and improve health of communities.

  • Community Health Assessment and Improvement Planning - (National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO))  Details

    This website provides access to resources in support of both assessment of community benefit and accreditation, from from the perspective of Local Health Departments. Included are sections on community benefit, the Community Health Status Indicators Project, and accreditation prerequisites: CHAs and CHIPs.

  • Community Need Index (CNI) - (Truven Health)  Details

    Index assists in the process of gathering vital socio-economic factors in the community. The CNI is strongly linked to variations in community healthcare needs and is a strong indicator of a community's demand for various healthcare services.

  • Community Tool Box - (Community Tool Box, University of Kansas, Work Group for Community Health and Development USA)  Details

    The Community Tool Box is a global resource for free information on essential skills for building healthy communities. Its goal is to promote community health and development by connecting people, ideas and resources.

  • Comprehensive Community Needs Assessment (CCNA) Tool - (University of Missouri Columbia USA)  Details

    The Center for Applied Research and Environmental Systems (CARES) provides basic data on counties and states through an online data retrieval system and provides you with a downloadable, and editable, Microsoft Word document which can serve as a basis for conducting a more detailed CCNA. Free registration is required.

  • County Health Rankings & Roadmaps - (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF), University of Wisconsin)  Details

    Provides county-by-county health rankings for each of the 50 states and Washington DC, explanations of each health factor, and actionable strategies to improve the health of communities across the nation.

  • HSRProj - (National Information Center on Health Services Research and Health Care Technology (NICHSR), NLM)  Details

    Database of ongoing health services research projects. Search for studies relating to access, cost, and quality of health care, including patient outcomes, health services research methods, community needs assessments, etc.

  • HSRR (Health Services and Sciences Research Resources) - (National Information Center on Health Services Research and Health Care Technology (NICHSR), NLM)  Details

    HSRR is a searchable database of information about research datasets, instruments/indices and software employed in Health Services Research, the Behavioral and Social Sciences and Public Health. The database includes brief descriptions of research resources and links to PubMed.

  • Hospital-based Strategies for Creating a Culture of Health (2014) images/pdf.gif icon - (Health Research and Educational Trust (HRET), Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF))  Details

    This report presents the results of an analysis of the community health needs assessments from 300 tax-exempt hospitals. It outlines the key drivers to community health needs, including: access to care, lack of health insurance, socioeconomic factors, limited preventive and screening services, limited care coordination, and inadequate chronic condition management.

  • Leading Health Indicators - (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) USA)  Details

    Healthy People 2020 provides a comprehensive set of 10-year, national goals and objectives for improving the health of all Americans. Healthy People 2020 contains 42 topic areas with more than 1,200 objectives. A smaller set of Healthy People 2020 objectives, called Leading Health Indicators (LHIs), have been selected to communicate high-priority health issues and actions that can be taken to address them.

  • Maps and Data - (Kaiser Permanente USA)  Details

    This tool will allow you to browse maps created by Community Commons members, or build state specific reports for Community Health Needs Assessment and Vulnerable Populations Footprint.

  • MeasureUp - (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF))  Details

    The Building Health Places Network's website contains tools aimed at measuring programs' impact on families and communities and on factors related to health.

  • Neighborhood Atlas - (University of Wisconsin)  Details

    Tool allows for rankings of neighborhoods by socioeconomic status disadvantage in a region of interest (e.g. at the state or national level). It includes factors for the theoretical domains of income, education, employment, and housing quality. It can be used to inform health delivery and policy, especially for the most disadvantaged neighborhood groups.

  • Opportunity 360 - (Enterprise Community Partners, Inc.)  Details

    Tool includes several online data and mapping applications, toolkits and how-to-guides, as well as innovative technologies for engaging community residents. It also offers a 360-degree view of any neighborhood, including housing, health, education, employment, transportation, and environment. Free registration is required for use.

  • ROI Calculator for Partnerships to Address the Social Determinants of Health - (Commonwealth Fund)  Details

    This calculator is designed to assist community-based organizations and their medical partners in creating mutually advantageous financial arrangements for funding the delivery of social services to high-need, high-cost (HNHC) populations, by calculating the return on investment (ROI) from integrating social services with medical care.

  • Tools for Community Action - (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), HHS)  Details

    This website includes links to The Guide to Community Preventive Services, Community Health Resources Database, Community Health Assessment aNd Group Evaluation (CHANGE) Tool and Action Guide, several actions guides, and a series of reports focusing on health education

State and Special Population Resources

For additional state- and city-level resources, visit the HSRIC State and State/Local Resources topic page.

  • City of Philadelphia Community Health Explorer - (Philadelphia Department of Public Health)  Details

    The CHA is a systematic assessment of population health in Philadelphia, highlighting key public health challenges and assets and informing local public health programs, policies, and partnerships. The CHA includes indicators reflecting health behaviors, health conditions, health care factors, and social and environmental determinants of health.

  • Cottage Data2Go Details

    An online mapping and data tool that maps Cottage Health's 2016 Community Health Needs Assessment (CHNA) data, census data and other publicly available data for factors that influence health outcomes. The tool provides a view of the specific health needs by demographics, geography and health outcome or influencer. Data is specific to Santa Barbara County, CA. (Cottage Health)

  • exploreMOhealth - (Missouri Foundation for Health)  Details

    Tool allows community health improvement stakeholders and the public access to data to identify health factors and outcomes at the ZIP code level across Missouri.

  • Hennepin County Public Health Data Details

    A tool to monitor the health of children and adults who live in Hennepin County. Data includes indicators on chronic disease, mortality, infectious disease, nutrition, substance use, preventive care, child health, and more.

  • New York State Community Health Indicator Reports (CHIRS) - (New York State Department of Health)  Details

    Reports were developed initially in 2012 and are annually updated to consolidate and improve data linkage for the provided health indicators in the County Health Assessment Indicators (CHAI) for all communities in New York. The CHIRS provide data for over 300 health indicators, organized by 15 health topic and data tables with links to trend graphs and maps.

  • Oklahoma State of the State's Health - (Oklahoma State Department of Health (OSDH))  Details

    Interactive site provides data on health indicators at the county- and demographic-levels, graded in relation to national averages.

  • San Francisco Health Improvement Partnership - (San Francisco Department of Public Health US)  Details

    Community health dashboards contain health and wellness indicators, disparity indicators, consumer expenditures, and a Healthy People 2020 progress tracker.

  • Tri-State Community Wellness Indicators Details

    This website provides information on demographics, health, and societal risk factors for fourteen counties in southwestern Indiana, southeastern Illinois and northwestern Kentucky.

  • Vermont State Data Center - (University of Vermont)  Details

    A searchable resource created by the University of Vermont. It is divided by Vermont cities, towns, and villages, with information on demographics, transportation, education, and health resources in Vermont.

  • Virginia Department of Health Data Portal - (Virginia Department of Health (VDH) USA)  Details

    This data portal was developed to provide a convenient access point for health-related data for Virginia. This portal is a comprehensive source for community health assessment, public, and population health data. Each data portal page provides interactive data at the most granular level available.

  • Wisconsin Data Atlas - (University of Wisconsin)  Details

    An accessible web portal that connects community groups working to improve health to the local area data and information they need to inform and evaluate their work. They aim to provide a comprehensive picture of the multiple factors that impact health, including individual behaviors, policies, systems, and environments.

Legislation / Regulations

Federal Resources

  • Requirement of a Section 4959 Excise Tax Return and Time for Filing the Return images/pdf.gif icon - (Internal Revenue Service (IRS) USA)  Details

    This document contains final and temporary regulations that provide guidance to charitable hospital organizations regarding the requirement of a return to accompany payment of the excise tax, enacted as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, for failure to meet the community health needs assessment requirements for any taxable year.

  • Schedule H (Form 990) - (Internal Revenue Service (IRS) USA)  Details

    Not-for-profit hospitals are required to file this form, which demonstrates their compliance with ACA section 501(r). Link directs to IRS resource pages for form, instructions, notifications and other relevant tax documents,

State Resources

  • State Links for Exempt Organizations - (Internal Revenue Service (IRS) USA)  Details

    The IRS has provided a set of links to the state government web sites, with information related to the tax regulations for tax-exempt organizations.

Selected Articles and Documents

  • Community Health Needs Assessment Toolkit (2012) - (Oklahoma State University, National Center for Rural Health Works USA)  Details

    Designed for state level professionals, this toolkit facilitates the community health assessment process in rural hospitals at no or low cost to the hospitals.

  • Community Health Needs Assessments - (Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO))  Details

    Included in this set of resources are several case studies looking at partnerships between hospitals and state public health departments.

  • Delivering community benefit: Healthy food playbook Details

    The "Delivering community benefit: Healthy food playbook" is a suite of resources to support hospital community benefit professionals and community partners in developing community health interventions that promote healthy food access and healthier food environments. (Health Care Without Harm)

  • Healthy People 2020 and Social Determinants of Health - (National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO))  Details

    The information contained in this website is designed to support and increase the use of HP 2020 among local health departments, non-profit hospitals, and other organizations related to community health assessment and improvement planning

  • Hospitals Building Healthier Communities: Embracing the Anchor Mission (2013) images/pdf.gif icon - (University of Maryland)  Details

    The report features a series of case studies, intended to serve as models for other hospitals planning to strengthen their community engagement model. Included in the paper are previous research on anchor institutions, the evolution of the hospital in the U.S. and trends and best practices in community building.

  • Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action - (Johns Hopkins University Press (JHUP))  Details

    A national, peer-reviewed journal whose mission is to identify and publicize model programs that use community partnerships to improve public health, promote progress in the methods of research and education involving community health partnerships, and stimulate action that will improve the health of people and communities. Articles may require a subscription.

Analyses examining Pre-ACA Community Benefit Practices

Sample Community Health Needs Assessments

This is a list of representative samples of CHNA’s. These have been selected to provide examples of different types of institutions that would be doing CHNA’s. The list is not meant to be exhaustive.

  • Community Needs Assessment of the New York City Faith Sector (September 2017) images/pdf.gif icon - (New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene)  Details

    Report evaluates the capability and capacity of the faith communities in NYC, identifies gaps in communication and coordination with the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, and provides recommendations on how to best target resources in response to future public health emergencies.

  • UPMC Community Health Needs Assessments - (University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) USA)  Details

    A series of community health needs assessment from the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center system, representing a variety of 2016 reports, including large and small, rural and urban hospitals.

Meetings / Webinars

  • Essentials of Collaboration: An Interactive Guide to Effective Collaboration - (National Initiative for Children's Health Quality (NICHQ))  Details

    This interactive course explores how to produce positive population health outcomes through effective collaboration. Using a case study to help share key concepts, the course give directions on breaking down silos, aligning activities, and working productively together.



  • Community Health Status Indicators (CHSI) 2015 Webinar - (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), HHS, National Library of Medicine (NLM), NIH USA)  Details

    This CDC/NLM webinar provides an overview of the new features and redesign of CDC's CHSI online web application. Learn firsthand from experts who developed CHSI 2015 about how best to use this redesigned web application to support community health and health needs assessment and population health improvement. Originally presented on March 24 and March 26, 2015.

  • Cross-sector collaboration for data sharing - (National Center for Complex Health and Social Needs)  Details

    Series of webinars and briefs to provide practical examples of successful cross-sector data sharing. These resources cover the importance of building trust when embarking on data-sharing partnerships, navigating legal parameters for cross-sector data sharing, and activating shared data.


  • American Hospital Association Details

    The primary organization for hospitals, AHA's website contains a number of reports, presentations, and case studies relevant to organizations seeking to comply with the community benefit requirement.

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Details

    The Centers for Disease Prevention and Control (CDC) is one of the operating components of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. CDC's mission is to promote health and quality of life by preventing and controlling disease, injury, and disability.

  • Community Benefit Connect Details

    The purpose of Community Benefit Connect is to support nonprofit hospitals by building a learning community of practitioners who will translate into action community benefit planning, implementation, reporting and evaluation. Included on the website are suggested links, webinars, and a blog.

  • Community Indicators Consortium Details

    The Community Indicators Consortium advances and supports the development, availability and effective use of community indicators for making measurable and sustainable improvements in quality of community life.

  • Health Impact Project - (Pew Charitable Trusts USA, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF))  Details

    The Health Impact Project, a collaboration of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and The Pew Charitable Trusts, is a national initiative designed to promote the use of health impact assessments (HIAs) as a decision-making tool for policymakers. Project site contains reports, articles, and an interactive map of HIAs in the US.

  • Hospital Accountability Project - (Community Catalyst USA)  Details

    This website features news related to the CHNA regulations, as well as links to documents useful to organizations needing to comply with the regulations.

  • Hospital Community Benefit Program - (Hilltop Institute USA, University of Maryland)  Details

    This website was developed to assist policymakers in locating the necessary resources to ensure continuation of their tax-exempt status.

  • Public Health Accreditation Board - (Public Health Accreditation Board (PHAB))  Details

    Provides information about a national voluntary accreditation program for state, local, territorial and tribal public health departments. The goal of the accreditation program is to improve and protect the health of every community by advancing the quality and performance of public health departments.

  • W.K. Kellogg Foundation Details

    The Foundation provides grant support for projects that concentrate on early childhood (prenatal to age 8), within the context of families and communities.