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  • Aldini, Giovanni. De animali electricitate dissertationes duae. 1794.
  • “Artificial Heart ‘Revives’ Dead Man.” The New York Times 31 Oct. 1934.
  • Baldick, Chris. In Frankenstein’s Shadow: Myth, Monstrosity, and Nineteenth-Century Writing. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987.
  • Bennett, Betty T., ed. The Letters of Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, vol. I. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980.
  • Butler, Marilyn. Introduction to Frankenstein; or, the Modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, iv-li. London: William Pickering, 1993.
  • Clark, John P. The Philosophical Anarchism of William Godwin. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977.
  • Cornish, Robert E. and H.J. Henriques. Report of Investigation of Resuscitation Berkeley, California: 1933.
  • Crook, Nora and Derek Guiton. Shelley’s Venomed Melody. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
  • Darwin, Erasmus. “Spontaneous Vitality of Microscopic Animals.” In The Temple of Nature; or, The Origin of Society. Baltimore: John W. Butler and Bonsal and Niles, 1804.
  • Davy, Humphry. Elements of Chemical Philosophy. Philadelphia, 1812.
  • Feldman, Paula R. and Diana Scott-Kilvert, eds. The Journals of Mary Shelley 1814-1844, vol. 1. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987.
  • Fisch, Audrey A., Anne K. Mellor and Esther H Schor, eds. The Other Mary Shelley: Beyond Frankenstein. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
  • Ford, J.E. “Can Science Raise the Dead?” Popular Science Monthly 126, Feb. 1935. 11-13, 108.
  • Forry, Steven Earl. Hideous Progenies: Dramatizations of Frankenstein from Mary Shelley to the Present. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1990.
  • “Glass Heart.” Time 26. 1 July 1935, 42.
  • Glut, Donald F. The Frankenstein Catalog. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co., 1984.
  • Grabo, Carl. Prometheus Unbound: An Interpretation. New York: Gordian Press, 1968.
  • Gray, Susan M. Charles Lindbergh and the American Dilemma: The Conflict of Technology and Human Values. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1988.
  • Haynes, Rosslyn D. From Faust to Strangelove: Representations of the Scientist in Western Literature. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994.
  • ———. “Frankenstein: The Scientist We Love to Hate.” Public Understanding of Science 4 (1995): 435-444.
  • Hyman, Albert S. “Resuscitation of the Stopped Heart by Intracardial Therapy.” Archives of Internal Medicine 50 (1932): 283-305.*
  • Jones, Stephen. The Frankenstein Scrapbook: The Complete Movie Guide to the World’s Most Famous Monster. New York: Carol Publishing Group, 1995.
  • Kelly, Gary. Revolutionary Feminism: The Mind and Career of Mary Wollstonecraft. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1992.
  • Ketterer, David. “Frankenstein’s ‘Conversion’ from Natural Magic to Modern Science—and A shifted (and Converted) Last Draft Insert.” Science-Fiction Studies 24 (1997): 57-78.
  • King-Hele, Desmond. Doctor of Revolution: The Life and Genius of Erasmus Darwin. London: Faber and Faber, 1977.
  • Marshall, Tim. Murdering to Dissect: Grave-robbing, Frankenstein, and the Anatomy of Literature. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995.
  • “Medicine: Doctors Have Some Success Making the Dead Live.” Newsweek 5 May 1934, 3-31.
  • Mellor, Anne K. Mary Shelley: Her Life, Her Fiction, Her Monsters. New York: Routledge, 1988.
  • Pelis, Kim. “Blood Clots: the Nineteenth-Century Debate over the Substance and Means of Transfusion in Britain.” Annals of Science 54 (1997): 331-360.
  • ———. “Transfusion with Teeth.” In Manifesting Medicine: Bodies and Machines, edited by Robert Bud, Bernard Finn, and Helmuth Trischler. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1999.
  • Pera, Marcello. The Ambiguous Frog: The Galvani-Volta Controversy on Animal Electricity. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992.
  • Perkowitz, Sidney. Digital People: From Bionic Humans to Androids. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press, 2004.
  • Pernick, Martin S. “Back from the Grave: Recurring Controversies over Defining and Diagnosing Death in History.” In Death, Beyond Whole Brain Criteria, edited by Richard M. Zaner. Dordrecht and Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1988.
  • “Plan to Revive Dead Told By Doctor.” New York Evening Journal. 3 May 1934.
  • Richardson, Ruth. Death, Dissection, and the Destitute. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1987.
  • Schechter, David Charles. “Early Experience with Resuscitation by Means of Electricity.” Surgery 69 (1971): 360-372.
  • Scott, Walter. “Remarks on Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus; a Novel.” Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine 2, no. 12 (March 1818): 613-620.
  • Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein, edited by J. Paul Hunter. New York: W.W. Norton, 1996.
  • Skal, David J. The Monster Show: A Cultural History of Horror. New York: W.W. Norton, 1993.
  • Smith, Crosbie. “Frankenstein and Natural Magic.” In Frankenstein, Creation, and Monstrosity, edited by Stephen Bann. London: Reaktion Books, 1994.
  • Stafford, Barbara Maria. Body Criticism: Imaging the Unseen in Enlightenment Art and Medicine. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1993.
  • Sunstein, Emily. Mary Shelley: Romance and Reality. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1989.
  • Trafford, Abigail. “Fear of Cloning and the Ewe To-Do.” Washington Post Health. 11 Mar. 1997, 6.
  • “Transfusion in Blood and Uterine Haemorrhage.” The Lancet 1 (1834-1835), 157.
  • Tudor, Andrew. Monsters and Mad Scientists: A Cultural History of the Horror Movie. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1989.
  • Turney, Jon. Frankenstein’s Footsteps: Science, Genetics, and Popular Culture. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998.
  • Ure, Andrew. On Galvanism. London: Privately printed, 1890.
  • Ziolkowski, Theodore. “Science, Frankenstein, and Myth.” Sewanee Review 89 (1981): 34-56.



  • Adam, Addie. Hilda and the Mad Scientist. New York: Dutton Children’s Books, 1995.
    Grades 4–7
    Big-hearted Hilda loves to be helpful. The mad scientist Dr. Weinerstein, who is rumored to make monsters in his creepy mansion on Vampire Hill, resists Hilda’s kindness. While Hilda is busy cleaning, cooking, and trying her best to take care of him, Dr. W. cooks up something to take care of her, once and for all! But things don’t turn out exactly as Dr. W. plans.
  • Catrow, David. Monster Mash. New York: Orchard Books, 2012.
    Grades 4–7
    The “Monster Mash” gets Wolf Man, zombies, and other monsters to dance and party in this catchy, classic song. Dracula rises out of his coffin, vampires feast in the master bedroom, and the ghouls get a jolt from Boris's electrodes.
  • Cooper, Stephen R. The Diary of Victor Frankenstein. New York: DK Ink, 1997.
    Grades 3–6
    The well-meaning doctor, who assembles a creature from human parts, records the tragic, gruesome consequences of his creation.
  • Cosgrove, Stephen. Creolé. Serendipity Series. Penguin Putnam Books for Young Readers, 2001.
    Grades PreK–2
    Creolé is a big, ugly creature, but she has a heart of gold. When she meets an alligator who is also ostracized, the two friends show the other creatures that you should never judge someone by the way they look.
  • Genco, Elizabeth (adapter) and Jason Ho (illustrator). Frankenstein, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. Graphic Horror Series. Edina, MN: Magic Wagon, 2008.
    Grades 7–12
    This is the graphic (but not gory!) novel adaptation of Shelley’s classic.
  • Ita, Sam. Frankenstein: A Pop-Up Book. New York: Sterling, 2010.
    Grades 4–8
    Experience the dark drama of Shelley’s masterpiece three-dimensionally through the genius of Ita’s art and paper engineering.
  • McDonnell, Patrick. The Monsters’ Monster. New York: Little, Brown Books for Young Readers, 2012.
    Grades PreK–1
    A very big monster teaches three bad little monsters the power of boundless gratitude
  • McFadden, Deanna, ed. Frankenstein, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. Classic Starts Series. New York: Sterling, 2006.
    Grades 2–4
    This is part of the Classic Starts Series. This accessible abridgement is designed to introduce young readers to Shelley’s classic.
  • Mould, Chris. Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.
    Grades 3–6
    Mould offers a light, comic-book version of Shelley’s classic tale.
  • Munch, Philippe (illustrator). Frankenstein, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. The Whole Story Series. New York: Viking Juvenile, 1998.
    Grades 7–12
    The unedited text of Shelley’s novel is paired with photographs, full-color drawings, and contextual information.
  • Parker, Steve. In the Footsteps of Frankenstein. Brookfield, CT: Copper Beech Books, 1995.
    Grades 4–6
    Parker introduces young readers to the original story in simple language with annotations, asides, and full-color photographs that delve into the historical influences of Shelley’s work.
  • Viney, Brigit (adapter) and Jason Cobley (script). Frankenstein: The Graphic Novel, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. Classic Graphic Novel Collection Series. Detroit: Lucent Books, 2010.
    Grades 7–12
    This stunning graphic-novel adaptation is complete with a glossary of terms, a biography of Mary Shelley, and a study of the novel’s literary elements, including a visual exploration of the novel’s plot.
  • Weinberg, Larry (adapter) and Ken Barr (illustrator). Frankenstein, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. A Stepping Stone Book Series. New York: Random House, 2005.
    Grades 2–5
    Mary Shelley’s classic has been adapted for a younger audience.


  • DuPrau, Jeanne. Cloning. San Diego: Lucent Books, 2000.
    Grades 7–11
    DuPrau offers a forthright overview of the key issues at the core of cloning, organized to be digestible for a young adult audience.
  • Funston, Sylvia. Monsters: A Strange Science Book. Strange Science Series. Toronto: Owl Books, 2001.
    Grades 3–6
    Sylvia Funston explores the myths, legends, and truths behind the startlingly strange stories of real and imagined monsters in this second book in the Strange Science series.
  • Krensky, Stephen. Frankenstein. Monster Chronicles Series. Minneapolis, MN: Millbrook Press, 2007.
    Grades 3–6
    This book tells the history behind the story of Frankenstein, including a brief biography of the author, the plot of the story, and a criticism of the novel’s various stage and screen adaptations.
  • Nicolson, Cynthia Pratt. Baa!: The Most Interesting Book You’ll Ever Read about Genes and Cloning. Mysterious You Series. Toronto: Kids Can Press, 2001.
    Grades 4–6
    The Mysterious You series explores the mysteries of the human body using an exciting mix of thoroughly researched, factual information, amazing anecdotes, and surprising, try-it activities. Kids can learn about natural selection, genetic mutations, DNA and forensics, gene mapping, and cloning in nature and in the lab. With simple language and kid-friendly examples, Baa! helps demystify an intriguing, but often difficult-to-grasp, subject in a way that kids can understand.
  • Perry, Janet, and Victor Gentle. Mad Scientists. Monsters Series. Milwaukee, WI: Gareth Stevens Publishing, 1999.
    Grades 2–4
    The authors contrast the monster-creating escapades of mad scientists, such as Frankenstein, Moreau, and Jekyll, with the methods used by real scientists who use science to help and do good in the world.
  • Tagliaferro, Linda. Genetic Engineering: Modern Progress or Future Peril? USA TODAY’s Debate: Voices and Perspectives Series. Minneapolis, MN: Twenty-First Century Books, 2010.
    Grades 8–12
    This book looks at the history and use of genetic engineering and includes regulatory laws and court cases. It provides the opinions and perspectives of scientists, ecologists, businesses, religious leaders, politicians, and professors on all sides of the issue, and also presents the experiences of people directly affected by genetic engineering such as researchers, farmers, and patients receiving gene therapy.
  • Wagner, Viqi, ed. Biomedical Ethics. Opposing Viewpoints Series. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2008.
    Grades 8–12
    This book contains a collection of opposing viewpoints written by leading thinkers on the ethics of stem cell research, cloning, human transplants, modern reproductive techniques, and genetic research. Readers are exposed to many sides of the debate, promoting issue awareness as well as critical thinking.


  • “Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley.” Brandeis University. (accessed May 5, 2014).
    This webpage includes a list of recommended readings about Mary Shelley, a narrative of Shelley’s life, and a list of her published works.
  • “The Frankenstein Monster (1973–1975).” (accessed May 5, 2014)
    “The Frankenstein Monster (1973–1975)” gives an overview of the Marvel Comics series, The Frankenstein Monster, which ran from January 1973 to September 1975.
  • “Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (1797–1851).” National Portrait Gallery, London. (accessed May 5, 2014).
    Portraits and a brief biography of Mary Shelley are available on this site. The biography offers links to other National Portrait Gallery pages featuring her parents, Mary Woollstonecraft and William Godwin; her husband Percy Bysshe Shelley; and a friend Byron.
  • “Frankenstein, Mary Shelley.” The Online Literature Library. (accessed May 5, 2014).
    This website provides the complete text of Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, the first edition published in 1818.
  • “Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley.” Poetry Foundation. (accessed May 5, 2014).
    Poetry Foundation offers online a biography of Mary Shelley with excerpts of her writing.
  • “Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft, 1979–1851.” Project Gutenberg. (accessed May 5, 2014).
    This Project Gutenberg site lists links to the full text of several of Mary Shelley’s works, including Frankenstein; Or, The Modern Prometheus, The Last Man, and Mathilda. It also includes links to audio books of Shelley’s Frankenstein and a Wikipedia article.
  • Allingham, Philip V, ed. “Mary Shelley’s ‘Frankenstein’ (1818) — A Summary of Modern Criticism.” The Victorian Web. (accessed May 5, 2014).
    “Mary Shelley’s ‘Frankenstein’ (1818) — A Summary of Modern Criticism.” contains descriptions of several articles that critiqued Shelley’s Frankenstein in the 20th century.
  • Marks, Derek with Charles Cuykendall Carter. “Graphic Novel: An Illustrated Biography of Mary Shelley.” Frankenstein: The Afterlife of Shelley’s Circle. New York Public Library Biblion. (accessed May 5, 2014).
    This online graphic novel illustrates a biography of Mary Shelley with graphic-novel style drawings.
  • “Drawing Rock ‘N’ Roll and Sympathy Into Frankenstein’s World.” NPR Books. (accessed May 5, 2014).
    This webpage includes an audio recording of an interview with illustrator Gris Grimly about his experience adapting Shelley’s Frankenstein for a graphic novel.