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Education: Related Resources at NLM


National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI) produces information resources on a range of topics covering chemical and biological macromolecules, DNA and RNA, genomes and their mappings, genetic sequencing and medicine, along with taxonomy of over 160,000 organisms.

The web site includes journals, databases, and information on clinical studies and current research related to biotechnology. Among these related resources is PubChem, a database created in 2004 with information on a variety of substances, as well as 2D and 3D models of the molecular structure of each. PubChem also serves as a gateway to the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB).


PubMed is a free resource developed and maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information at the National Library of Medicine. The database comprises more than 24 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. .

There are a variety of biotechnology topics to research on the PubMed site, below are a selection of subjects.

Resources in HMD

The National Library of Medicine (NLM) maintains and makes available a vast print collection related to a wide range of topics on medicine and human health. The studies of both physical and mental health effects of addictive substances are part of the library’s historical and general collections. Here are selected items from NLM’s collection, each of which provides insight into medical and public health perspectives and policies about various substances at different times during 19th and 20th centuries in the United States.

    • Campbell, J.A.. Note on the absence of beer in an asylum dietary. Carlisle, England: C. Thurnam & Sons, 1881.
    • Grindal, Martin, M.D. Warm beer, a treatise: proving, from reason, authority and experience, that beer so qualify’d, is far more wholesome than that which is drank cold … ; published for the general good … London: Printed for T. Read, 1741.
    • Hunt, Ezra M.. Alcohol; as a food and medicine. A paper from the Transactions of the International medical congress, at Philadelphia, September, 1876. New York, National temperance society and publication house, 1877.
    • Opinions and facts from eminent physicians, chemists, and others in favor of ale and beer as light wholesome beverages. Boston: Rand, Avery & Co., 1872
    • Coca: the sacred leaf of the Incas: the real history. Peru?: Editorial Illapa, 19--?
    • Mariani, Angelo. Coca and its therapeutic application. New York, J. N. Janos, 1890-
    • Martindale, William. Coca, cocaine and its salts; their history, medical and economic uses, and medicinal preparations. London, Lewis, 1886.
    • Thudichum, John Louis William. On the coca of Peru and its immediate principles: their strengthening and healing powers. London: Baillière, Tindall, & Cox …, 1885.
    • American Provers’ Union. Provings of cannabis indica. Philadelphia: King & Baird, printers, 1859.
    • Clouston, Thomas Smith. Observations and experiments on the use of opium, bromide of potassium, and cannabis indica in insanity: especially in regard to the effects of the latter given separately. London: Printed by J.E. Adlard, 1871
    • Ludlow, Fitz Hugh. The hasheesh eater: being passages from the life of a Pythagorean. New York: Harper & Bros., 1857.
    • Blair, William. An opium-eater in America. New York?: s.n., 1842.
    • Cobbe, William Rosser. Doctor Judas: a portrayal of the opium habit. Chicago: Griggs, 1895.
    • Jones, John, M.D.. The mysteries of opium reveal’d. London: Printed for Richard Smith …, 1701.
    • Leigh, John, M.D.. An experimental inquiry into the properties of opium, and its effects on living subjects …: being the disputation which gained the Harveian prize for the year 1785. Edinburgh: Printed for Charles Elliot, and G. G. J. & J. Robinson, London, 1786.
    • A dissertation on the use and abuse of tobacco : in relation to smoaking, chewing, and taking of snuff; humbly inscrib’d to the ladies and gentlemen, who use it … London: Printed for J. Roberts, 1720.
    • Clarke, Adam LL.D.. A dissertation on the use and abuse of tobacco: wherein the advantages and disadvantages attending the consumption of that entertaining weed are particularly considered: humbly addressed to all tobacco consumers, but especially to those among religious people. New York: Printed by C.S. Van Winkle …, 1819.
    • Harris, Elisha. Tobacco: the effects of its use as a luxury on the physical and moral nature of man: a prize essay. New York: Harned, 1853.
    • Thorius, Raphael. Tobacco: a poem; in two books. Translated by Henry Player and Stephan James Tabor. London: Printed by W. H. sold by J. Noon, and T. Sharpey: and S. Popping, 1716.
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