Skip Navigation Bar

Funding Support (Grant) Information in MEDLINE/PubMed

An important aspect of scientific publication is the indication of funding support. The Medical Subject Headings (MeSH®), which is used by the National Library of Medicine® (NLM®) to describe the content of journal articles for MEDLINE®, includes Publication Types to identify financial support of the research that resulted in the published papers when that support is mentioned in the articles:

Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, American Recovery & Reinvestment Act
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

These publication types are searchable in PubMed®. The table below gives the number of PubMed citations retrieved as of November 17, 2015. Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; and Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't have been used since 1975. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural and Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural have been used since June 2005. Research Support, American Recovery & Reinvestment Act has been used since 2010. It is important to remember that these publication types may be present on any citation regardless of its publication date as long as it was completely processed during or after 1975, 2005, and 2010 respectively.

Funding Support
(The PubMed search tags are: [dp] date of publication, [pt] publication type, and [gr] grant number.)
Search Total* 2015** [dp] 2014[dp] 2013[dp] 2012[dp] 2011 [dp]
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.[pt] OR nih[gr] OR acf[gr] OR ahrq[gr] OR adamha[gr] OR cdc[gr] OR fda[gr] OR hrsa[gr] OR samhsa[gr]**** 2,445,893 91,953 132,680 135,413 131,038 127,803
Number (and percent) of PHS Support in PubMed Central®*** 891,390
Research Support, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act [pt] 1,813 167 368 479 566 343
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural [pt] 866,173 63,119 103,063 105,523 103,631 102,669
Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural [pt] 41,369 2,871 4,705 5,173 5,459 5,315
NIH Support (see strategy below) 2,149,398 89,706 129,213 132,087 127,918 124,986
Number (and percent) of NIH Support in PubMed Central*** 851,762
Percent of "Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. [pt] OR nih [gr]" coming entirely or in-part from NIH 88% 98% 97% 98% 98% 98%
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. [pt] OR pepfar[gr] OR va[gr] OR nist[gr] OR oash[gr] OR aspe[gr] OR onchit[gr] OR nasa[gr] OR aspr[gr]**** 723,787 24,368 39,432 40,420 42,866 39,528
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't [pt] OR howard hughes [gr] OR united kingdom [gr] OR austria [gr] OR canada [gr] OR ireland [gr] OR international[gr] OR italy [gr] 6,254,254 304,801 493,174 482,481 450,458 416,597

*Includes some citations having 2015 as date of publication.
**More recent dates of publication are not complete due to publication cycles and processing times.
***These numbers are not intended to represent compliance with the NIH Public Access policy. Citations for embargoed PubMed Central articles are not included in these counts. The embargo period is a delay, of up to 12 months, from the publication date to when the full text article is made available in PubMed Central.
****Search strategy expanded in 2015 for all dps.

In general, the counts in the above chart do not include citations to articles unless the research was also supported by a grant that was mentioned in the article or reported by other means to provide evidence of compliance with policies such as the NIH Public Access Policy.

In 1981, NLM began to carry the actual grant number for PHS grants, just as it appears in the original article, in the MEDLINE citation. No attempt is made to standardize the format of the grant numbers, except for the prefix portion where the correct format contains the number '0' (zero) and not the letter 'O', e.g.: R01 and not RO1. A computer algorithm scans the grant number to isolate the 2-letter grant code and then adds the agency/institute acronym to the citation. The data are only as dependable as the original source and some mislabeling of the supporting institution may occur as a result of the machine parsing, but the numbers are a good indication of the literature acknowledging research support that is being indexed for MEDLINE.

NIH Support is data obtained with the following strategy:

NIH [gr] OR Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural [pt] OR Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural [pt]

To limit to acknowledged funding from a particular institute, use this PubMed search pattern:

(NIH [gr] OR Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural [pt] OR Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural [pt]) AND nci [gr]

Consult Grant Number Information Found in the GR Field in MEDLINE/PubMed for the NIH abbreviations.

For comparison purposes, the overall citation counts in PubMed as of November 17, 2015 were:

Citation Status Total Citations
MEDLINE 22,504,019
PubMed-not-MEDLINE 1,582,546
In process 636,950
Publisher supplied 485,126
All PubMed 25,473,598


Interested in more details about searching PubMed for research support publication types and grant numbers?

See the following NLM Technical Bulletin Articles and NLM Web pages:

Funding Support - 2014
Current Year