Funding Support (Grant) Information in MEDLINE/PubMed
An important aspect of scientific publication is the indication of funding support. The Medical Subject Headings (MeSH®), which is used by the National Library of Medicine® (NLM®) to describe the content of journal articles for MEDLINE®, includes Publication Types to identify financial support of the research that resulted in the published papers when that support is mentioned in the articles:
- Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
- Research Support, American Recovery & Reinvestment Act
- Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
- Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
- Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
- Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
These publication types are searchable in PubMed®. The table below gives the number of PubMed citations retrieved as of April 3, 2014. Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; and Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't have been used since 1975. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural and Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural have been used since June 2005. Research Support, American Recovery & Reinvestment Act has been used since 2010. It is important to remember that these publication types may be present on any citation regardless of its publication date as long as it was completely processed during or after 1975, 2005, and 2010 respectively.
(The PubMed search tags are: [dp] date of publication, [pt] publication type, and [gr] grant number.)
Search Total* 2013** [dp] 2012[dp] 2011[dp] 2010 [dp] 2009 [dp] Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.[pt] OR nih [gr] 2,245,078 122,297 127,214 125,078 117,154 109,383 Number (and percent) of PHS Support in PubMed Central®*** 700,136
Research Support, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act [pt] 1,367 451 566 342 128 7 Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural [pt] 727,693 97,185 102,916 102,457 95,839 89,646 Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural [pt] 35,135 4,857 5,424 5,307 5,011 4,947 NIH Support (see strategy below) 1,953,339 119,520 124,349 122,296 114,906 107,084 Number (and percent) of NIH Support in PubMed Central*** 661,731
Percent of "Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. [pt] OR nih [gr]" coming entirely or in-part from NIH 87% 98% 98% 98% 98% 98% Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. [pt] OR pepfar[gr] OR va[gr] 668,571 37,632 42,487 39,283 35,237 32,277 Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't [pt] OR howard hughes [gr] OR united kingdom [gr] OR canada [gr] OR italy [gr] OR ireland [gr] OR austria [gr] OR autism speaks [gr] OR pcori[gr] OR international[gr] 5,575,347 435,285 444,484 414,316 379,985 344,985
- *Includes some citations having 2014 as date of publication.
- **More recent dates of publication are not complete due to publication cycles and processing times.
- ***These numbers are not intended to represent compliance with the NIH Public Access policy. Citations for embargoed PubMed Central articles are not included in these counts. The embargo period is a delay, of up to 12 months, from the publication date to when the full text article is made available in PubMed Central.
In general, the counts in the above chart do not include citations to articles unless the research was also supported by a grant that was mentioned in the article or reported by other means to provide evidence of compliance with policies such as the NIH Public Access Policy.
In 1981, NLM began to carry the actual grant number for PHS grants, just as it appears in the original article, in the MEDLINE citation. No attempt is made to standardize the format of the grant numbers, except for the prefix portion where the correct format contains the number '0' (zero) and not the letter 'O', e.g.: R01 and not RO1. A computer algorithm scans the grant number to isolate the 2-letter grant code and then adds the agency/institute acronym to the citation. The data are only as dependable as the original source and some mislabeling of the supporting institution may occur as a result of the machine parsing, but the numbers are a good indication of the literature acknowledging research support that is being indexed for MEDLINE.
- NIH [gr] OR Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural [pt] OR Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural [pt]
To limit to acknowledged funding from a particular institute, use this PubMed search pattern:
- (NIH [gr] OR Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural [pt] OR Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural [pt]) AND nci [gr]
Consult Grant Number Information Found in the GR Field in MEDLINE/PubMed for the NIH abbreviations.
For comparison purposes, the overall citation counts in PubMed as of April 3, 2014 were:
Citation Status Total Citations MEDLINE 21,069,191 PubMed-not-MEDLINE 1,282,564 In process 514,575 Publisher supplied 448,321 OLDMEDLINE 387,415 All PubMed 23,702,066
Interested in more details about searching PubMed for research support publication types and grant numbers?
See the following NLM Technical Bulletin Articles and NLM Web pages:
- New Granting Organizations for MEDLINE/PubMed
- New Grant Funding Organizations Added for Europe PMC
- Nine New Granting Organizations for MEDLINE/PubMed
- Two New Granting Organizations for MEDLINE/PubMed: Autism Speaks and PEPFAR
- Grant Number Information Updated
- United Kingdom Funding Agency Arthritis Research Campaign Changes Its Name
- New United Kingdom Granting Organizations for MEDLINE/PubMed
- European Granting Organization Agency Changes Name
- New European Granting Organizations for MEDLINE®/PubMed®
- Canadian Institutes of Health Research: A New Granting Organization for MEDLINE®/PubMed®
- Grant Numbers in 2009 PubMed® & Display and Search Changes
- Additional Grant Number Information from the United Kingdom
Research Support MeSH® Headings Introduced
mid-Year to 2005 MeSH®
Grant Numbers in PubMed® Citations
Trust Grant Numbers Added to MEDLINE®/PubMed® Citations
- MeSH® Category V Terms: Change in Treatment from MeSH
Heading to Publication Type During Year-End-Processing for Both MEDLINE® and NLM Catalog
- Grant Number Information Found in the GR Field in MEDLINE®/PubMed®
- More Changes to Grant Number Information