Funding Support (Grant) Information in MEDLINE/PubMed
Articles cited in MEDLINE/PubMed receive funding from a variety of sources. Article citations are tagged with funding support information. The chart below shows the number of articles funded per publication year for various funding support categories. Click on the first column category name to run the search in PubMed; in the searches, [gr] = Grant Number; [pt] = Publication Type; and [dp] = date of publication.
Funding Support for Articles Cited in MEDLINE/PubMed
|Funding Support Category||Total Number of Articles*||Articles Published in 2019**||Articles Published in 2018||Articles Published in 2017||Articles Published in 2016|
|Public Health Service (PHS) Support||3,033,161||127,853||123,778||131,889||142,715|
|PHS Support in PMC (PubMed Central)***||1,457,530||84,698||77,769||114,866||124,309|
|Percentage of PHS Supported Articles in PMC||48%||66%||63%||87%||87%|
|American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Support||2,057||38||44||25||85|
|N.I.H. Extramural Support****||2,668,869||123,602||117,657||124,970||134,673|
|N.I.H. Intramural Support||75,442||4,774||4,043||4,341||5,229|
|NIH Support in PMC||1,403,853||83,054||76,131||112,577||121,751|
|Percentage of NIH Supported Articles in PMC||52%||67%||63%||88%||88%|
|Percentage of PHS Support from NIH||90%||97%||97%||97%||97%|
|United States Government, non-PHS Support||860,441||31,695||27,673||26,857||34,179|
|Non-United States Government Support||7,597,984||335,297||262,044||235,951||345,453|
- *The strategies were revised and rerun for all the publication years. Counts in this table were made on September 1, 2020. Numbers change on a daily basis.
- **Numbers from the most recent year may be underestimated due to publication cycles and processing times. One article may be counted twice in different publication years; for example, if it was published online first in one year and then included in a print issue in another year.
- ***These numbers are not intended to represent compliance with the NIH Public Access policy. Citations for embargoed PubMed Central articles are not included in these counts. The embargo period is a delay, of up to 12 months, from the publication date to when the full-text article is made available in PubMed Central.
- ****Slightly under-reported because citations also having Intramural NIH support are excluded.
The counts in the chart above only include citations where grant information is readily available.
Searching for Funding Support Information
To search for articles funded by a particular organization, search the Grant field for the institute acronym or the name of the organization found on this page. For example, the following search will find research funded by the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases:
This search will find research funded by the Wellcome Trust:
This search will find research funded by the National Cancer Institute:
For help with more specific funding support search strategies, contact NLM.
The National Library of Medicine (NLM) tracks funding information using two data elements: Grant Number and Publication Type.
Grant Number [gr]
- Since 1981, NLM has included research grant numbers or contract numbers or both that designate financial support by any agency of the United States Public Health Service (PHS) which also includes the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The numbers are carried in the NLM journal citation as published in the literature with no standardization except for the prefix portion where the number zero (not the letter O) and the number one (not the letter l) should be present, for example: R01, not ROl. A computer algorithm scans the grant number to isolate the 2-letter grant code and then adds the agency/instituted acronym to the citation. The expanded data are only as dependable as the original source string; some mislabeling of the supporting institution may occur. Initially, only up to three grant numbers were included; that limitation was lifted in 2000.
- Since 2006, NLM has added grant information derived from PMC and PubMed My NCBI as result of the NIH Public Access Policy. As a result, grant data may now exist on citations to articles published prior to 1981. The corresponding PT value (see below), however, is not added to the citation when the grant element comes from PMC or PubMed My NCBI association.
Publication Type [pt]
The Medical Subject Headings (MeSH®), which is used by the National Library of Medicine® (NLM®) to describe the content of journal articles for MEDLINE®, includes Publication Types to identify financial support of the research that resulted in the published papers when that support is mentioned in the articles:
- Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't (since 1975)
- Research Support, American Recovery & Reinvestment Act (since 2010)
- Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. (since 1975)
- Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. (since 1975)
- Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural (since 2005)
- Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural (since 2005)
More Information about Funding Support in PubMed
- Tybaert S. New Europe PMC Funding Organization: Wellcome Trust – DBT India Alliance. NLM Tech Bull. 2017 Jul-Aug;(417):e2.
- Tybaert S. New Europe PMC Grant Funding Organization Added. NLM Tech Bull. 2016 Jul-Aug;(411):e3.
- Tybaert S. Grant Funding Organizations New to MEDLINE and PubMed: ACL, EPA and Additional NASA Agencies. 2016 May-Jun;(410):e9.
- Tybaert S. Two New Granting Organizations for MEDLINE/PubMed. NLM Tech Bull. 2016 Mar-Apr;(409):e1.
- Tybaert S. Grant Funding Organizations Added to PubMed: ASPR, NASA, NIST. NLM Tech Bull. 2015 Sep-Oct;(406):e6.
- Name Change for Europe PMC Funding Agency Leukaemia and Lymphoma Research. NLM Tech Bull. 2015 Sep-Oct;(406):b4.
- Intramural NIH Research Support: Status of Publication Type [PT] and Grant Number [GR] Elements. NLM Tech Bull. 2015 Jul-Aug;(405):b17.
- Two European Granting Organizations Merge to Become a New Organization. NLM Tech Bull. 2015 Jul-Aug;(405):b1.
- Tybaert S. Granting Organization Designations: Addition of Intramural NIST as a Funding Source and NCCAM Name Change. NLM Tech Bull. 2015 May-Jun;(404):e9
- Kwan YK. New Grant Funding Organizations Added for Europe PMC. NLM Tech Bull. 2015 May-Jun;(404):e6.
- Funk KM, Knecht LS. Intramural Funding for MEDLINE/PubMed. NLM Tech Bull. 2015 Mar-Apr;(403):e2.
- Tybaert S. New Granting Organizations for MEDLINE/PubMed. NLM Tech Bull. 2014 May-Jun;(398):e1.
- Tybaert S. New Grant Funding Organizations Added for Europe PMC. NLM Tech Bull. 2013 Sep-Oct;(394):e5.
- Tybaert S. Nine New Granting Organizations for MEDLINE/PubMed. NLM Tech Bull. 2013 Mar-Apr;(391):e6.
- Tybaert S. Two New Granting Organizations for MEDLINE/PubMed: Autism Speaks and PEPFAR. NLM Tech Bull. 2012 Mar-Apr;(385):e8.
- Tybaert S. Grant Number Information Updated. NLM Tech Bull. 2012 Jan-Feb;(384):e1.
- Tybaert S. United Kingdom Funding Agency Arthritis Research Campaign Changes Its Name. NLM Tech Bull. 2011 Nov-Dec;(383):e10.
- Kwan YK. New United Kingdom Granting Organizations for MEDLINE/PubMed. NLM Tech Bull. 2011 Jul-Aug;(381):e12.
- Kwan YK. European Granting Organization Agency Changes Name. NLM Tech Bull. 2011 Mar-Apr;(379):e18.
- Knecht LS, Tybaert S. New European Granting Organizations for MEDLINE/PubMed. NLM Tech Bull. 2010 Sep-Oct;(376):e2.
- Knecht LS. Canadian Institutes of Health Research: A New Granting Organization for MEDLINE/PubMed. NLM Tech Bull. 2010 Jan-Feb;(372):e2.
- McGhee M. Grant Numbers in 2009 PubMed — Display and Search Changes. NLM Tech Bull. 2009 Jan-Feb;(366):e2.
- Tybaert S, Knecht LS. More Changes to Grant Number Information. NLM Tech Bull. 2007 Nov-Dec; (359):e9.
- Zipser JR, Knecht LS. Additional Grant Number Information from the United Kingdom. NLM Tech Bull. 2007 May-Jun; (357):e3.
- Tybaert S. MeSH Category V Terms: Change in Treatment from MeSH Heading to Publication Type During Year-End-Processing for Both MEDLINE and NLM Catalog. NLM Tech Bull. 2006 Sep-Oct;(352):e2.
- Knecht LS. Wellcome Trust Grant Number Added to MEDLINE/PubMed Data. NLM Tech Bull. 2006 May-Jun;(350):e4.
- Knecht LS. NIH Grant Numbers in PubMed Citations. NLM Tech Bull. 2006 May-Jun;(350):e3.
- Knecht LS, Marcetich J. New Research Support MeSH Headings Introduced mid-Year to 2005 MeSH. NLM Tech Bull. 2005 May-Jun;(344):e12.
- Grant Number Information Found in the GR Field in MEDLINE/PubMed
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Last Reviewed: September 1, 2020