Monday – Friday
Closed on federal holidays
The History of Medicine Reference staff responds to inquiries about the NLM historical collections from across the U. S. and abroad by e-mail, telephone, mail, fax, and in person.
Digital Collections is the National Library of Medicine’s free online resource of biomedical books, still images, and videos. All of the content in Digital Collections is freely available worldwide and, unless otherwise indicated, in the public domain. Digital Collections provides unique access to NLM’s rich resources.
Selected archival collections are also available in digital format, including Profiles in Science, the FDA Notices of Judgement Collection, the Henkel Family Letters, and selected speeches and articles by former NLM director Dr. Martin M. Cummings.
The Library’s website also contains a wide variety of guides, thematic sites, exhibitions, and other resources containing digitized materials, which can be explored through the research tools page or searching the NLM website.
Doing research in the historical collections of the National Library of Medicine is free and open to the public during business hours. While considerable research can be done at a distance, due to the rarity, format, condition, and vast scope of the historical collections some items can only be viewed onsite. In the case of manuscript and audiovisual collections, some materials may be stored offsite and require advanced notice for retrieval and viewing. Go to Plan Onsite Research for more information about visiting the National Library of Medicine for historical research.
Some historical collections, particularly recent archival and manuscript collections, at the National Library of Medicine contain sensitive information and require special application prior to public access. Please review information about policy, application requirements, and access in the PDF document Access to Health Information of Individuals or contact the reference staff or the manuscripts curator of the NLM History of Medicine Division to learn more.
This policy was motivated by the implementation in April 2003 of the Privacy Rule [45 CFR 160; 140] of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA). While the Library is not a covered entity under HIPAA and therefore not subject to its regulations, the Library nonetheless wishes to establish a policy that reflects the principles of HIPAA’s Privacy Rule.
The Library does not lend historical material in its original format; however, we do lend, through interlibrary loan, copies, microfilm, and viewing copies of audiovisuals when they are available. For some materials limited copies or scans can be made available to individual researchers on request, fees may apply.
The Library’s interlibrary loan services are available only to libraries, not to individuals. If you would like to borrow NLM material please make a request through a local library. For more information see Interlibrary Loan and Document Delivery Services.
NLM provides a “scan-on-demand” program as part of its ongoing effort to make historical medical content more widely available to the public. If you request monograph material published before 1923 that is in the public domain, you will receive a fully digitized copy of the original, which is then also deposited in NLM’s Digital Collections repository for public access.
You are under obligation to determine and satisfy copyright restrictions when publishing or otherwise distributing material from the historical collections. The Library reserves the right to refuse to accept a copying order if, in its judgment, fulfillment of the order would involve violation of the copyright law. See Historical Collections Copyright for more information.
Collections may not be copied in their entirety. The Curator reserves the right to make decisions regarding the appropriateness of any individual request, based on an item’s condition, amount of copying requested, and copyright status. Be aware that some archive and manuscript materials may be stored offsite and may take longer to receive.
History of Medicine Staff performs all copying for a fee of 20¢ per page. Patrons may choose to pick up completed photocopy orders at the History of Medicine Reading Room or have them mailed free of charge. You are responsible for ensuring compliance with copyright
Some collections, because of their size, copyright, and use restrictions, may not be copied at all. For more information about restrictions, contact the Archives & Modern Manuscripts Program.
Digital copies may be available at the discretion of the History of Medicine Reference Staff.
For more information Ask a Reference Librarian.
We prefer that you listen and view audiovisual materials in the History of Medicine Reading Room. In special circumstances, copying of manuscript collection audiovisual materials is allowed. Patrons make billing and shipping arrangements directly with an approved audio or film reproduction company.
See Ordering Copies of Historical Films and Videos below for more options.Close Close All Open All
We prefer that you listen and view historical audiovisual materials in the History of Medicine Reading Room.
Be aware that some audiovisual and manuscript materials may be stored offsite and require advance notice for retrieval. The collections involved are marked by the indication "Location: HMD Collection-Offsite" in the Holdings View in LocatorPlus.
Historical Audiovisuals (HAV) staff can upload low-resolution appraisal copies of up to five titles per month to our FTP site so that you may view content before making selections for the duplication process. For more information, please contact the Historical Audiovisuals Program.
The National Library of Medicine has established an audio description on-demand workflow for moving image material, in keeping with NLM’s commitment to improved accessibility to collections for our patrons. Audio description can be helpful to those with visual impairments, as it describes action taking place in a film or video, supplementing existing dialogue and narration. If a patron requests audio description of a film or video, NLM will send the title to an experienced vendor who will develop and record a script and combine it with the original soundtrack, producing a new digital file. NLM will make the file available to the researcher through its file-sharing (FTP) service. Turn-around is a minimum of 14 days.
You may not borrow films directly from NLM, but may request a viewing copy via interlibrary loan through a local library. For more see information see Interlibrary Loan and Document Delivery Services.
Films and videos may be duplicated if they are determined to be in the public domain, or if you obtain permission from the copyright holder. Useful information on copyright is available from our Patron Guide to Copyright and Historical Collections, the Copyright Office at the Library of Congress and from this guide to Copyright Term and the Public Domain, updated annually. You are responsible for carrying out this research, submitting the necessary forms, and making arrangements directly with approved vendors who specialize in film and video duplication.
To digitize or otherwise have a copy made of a film/videotape, contact the vendor directly to make arrangements (see form with vendor contact information below). They will provide a price for the copying, which should include the cost for picking the film up at the National Library of Medicine and returning it once the copying is completed. The Library does not charge patrons a service fee for copying, but does require that if digital files are produced, a copy of each file is donated to NLM, usually via a portable hard drive provided by the Library. If a title has been previously digitized and NLM holds copies of the digital files, we reserve the right to provide these files to patrons (at no charge), rather than permit additional processing or re-duplication of an original film or tape.
The following forms must be read, signed and returned via mail for EACH ITEM requested:
If using content obtained through NLM in any production or project, please include the phrase:
Courtesy of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
High resolution images may be downloaded from the NLM Digital Collections website. Locate images in Digital Collections via the Images from the History of Medicine (IHM) collection or still image format.Close Close All Open All
Last Reviewed: October 10, 2019